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Table 1 Demographic characteristics, AD biomarkers, and ATN groups of the participants by diagnostic category

From: Glial activation and inflammation along the Alzheimer’s disease continuum

Variable Groups X2(p) Dunn’s pair-wise comparisons
1. Healthy controls (n = 36) 2. Aβ + SCD (n = 18) 3. Aβ + MCI (n = 40) 4. AD dementia (n = 27) 1 vs 2 1 vs 3 1 vs 4 2 vs 3 2 vs 4 3 vs 4
Age 61.1 (9.2) 67.2 (6.6) 66.6 (7.4) 67.6 (5.2) X2 = 14.4 (< .01) n.s. < .05 < .05 n.s. n.s. n.s.
Female % 19 (53%) 8 (44%) 23 (57%) 13 (48%) X2 = 1.6 (n.s.) a a a a a a
MMSE 29.4 (0.7) 29.2 (0.8) 27.9 (2.0) 19.0 (5.8) X2 = 83.7 (< .001) n.s. < .001 < .001 < .01 < .001 < .001
APOE-ɛ4 positivity (%) 16 (44%) 13 (72%) 23 (57%) 9 (33%) X2 = 6.8 (n.s.) a a a a a a
CSF Aβ42 1044 (185) 530 (98) 474 (112) 473 (93)   b b b b b b
CSF Total tau 298 (97) 487 (249) 635 (290) 961 (417) X2 = 58.0 (< .001) < .05 < .001 < .001 n.s. < .01 < .05
CSF P-tau 51 (13) 74 (33) 86 (40) 89 (43) X2 = 37.2 (< .001) < .05 < .001 < .001 n.s. n.s. n.s.
A−T−N−, n (%) 36 (100%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)   b b b b b b
A+T−N−, n (%) 0 (0%) 10 (55%) 13 (33%) 0 (0%)   b b b b b b
A+T−N+, n (%) 0 (0%) 1 (5%) 10 (25%) 19 (70%)   b b b b b b
A+T+N+, n (%) 0 (0%) 7 (40%) 16 (40%) 8 (30%)   b b b b b b
  1. Abbreviations: n.s. non-significant, Aβ+ indicates CSF Aβ42 below the normal range
  2. aNon-parametric post hoc analysis not performed due to non-significant Kruskal-Wallis test. All p values are Bonferroni corrected
  3. b No statistical tests applied