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Fig. 5 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 5

From: The spleen may be an important target of stem cell therapy for stroke

Fig. 5

Splenic sympathetic nerve-mediated anti-inflammatory pathway after stroke. After the acute stage of stroke, “brain-spleen cross-talk” not only inhibits the splenic inflammatory response by activating the SNS (reducing the production of inflammatory factors, such as TNF-α) [172] but also induces IL-10 production by lymphocytes in the spleen through activation of the NE-mediated PKA/cAMP pathway in other inflammatory-related disease models [174, 175]

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