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Table 1 Overview of demographics, clinical, and radiological findings in patients with hemorrhagic manifestations of HSV CNS infection

From: Cerebrovascular manifestations of herpes simplex virus infection of the central nervous system: a systematic review

Demographics  
n 27
 Median age (IQR), years 40 (26–54)
 < 18 years 23% (4/27)
 Male sex 55% (15/27)
 Days from symptom onset to admission (median, IQR), n = 24 3.5 (2–7)
Clinical presentation
 Encephalitis 93% (25/27)
 Stroke-like 4% (1/27)
 Unspecific 4% (1/27)
Diagnostic testing
 HSV-1 (PCR of CSF) 59% (16/27)
 HSV-2 (PCR of CSF) 7% (2/27)
 HSV not distinguished (PCR of CSF) 26% (7/27)
 HSV not distinguished (antibody of CSF) 4% (1/27)
 PCR negative for HSV (CSF) 4% (1/27)
CSF findings
 Pleocytosis (> 4 cells/μl) 88% (21/24)
 Median cell count#(cells/μl, IQR, n = 23) 88 (25–387)
Neuroimaging
 Hemorrhage on first imaging 32% (8/25)
 Hemorrhage after admission 68% (17/25)
 Days from admission to detection of hemorrhage (median, IQR) 10 (9–14)
 Hemorrhage within HSE predilection sites 89% (24/27)
 Bilateral temporal lobe HSE 33% (8/24)
 Atypical localization of hemorrhage 7% (2/27)
 No encephalitic lesion 4% (1/27)
 Evidence for vasculitis 0% (0/9)
Intervention
 Hematoma evacuation 30% (8/27)
Outcome
 Good outcome (mRS 0–2) 38% (8/24)
 Unfavorable outcome (mRS 3–5) 41% (11/24)
 Fatality 21% (5/24)
  1. #In patients with pleocytosis. IQR interquarile range