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Table 2 Overview of demographics, clinical, and radiological findings in patients with ischemic manifestations of HSV CNS infection

From: Cerebrovascular manifestations of herpes simplex virus infection of the central nervous system: a systematic review

Demographics  
n 10
 Median age (IQR), years 47 (26–69)
 < 18 years 20% (2/10)
 Male gender 30% (3/10)
 Days from symptom onset to admission n = 3 on day 1, n = 1 on day 2
Clinical presentation
 Encephalitis 50% (5/10)
 Stroke-like 30% (3/10)
 Meningitis 20% (2/10)
Diagnostic testing
 HSV-1 (PCR of CSF) 20% (2/10)
 HSV-2 (PCR of CSF) 50% (5/10)
 HSV not distinguished (PCR of CSF) 20% (2/10)
 PCR negative for HSV-1 (CSF) but antibody rise 10% (1/10)
CSF findings
 Pleocytosis (> 4 cells/μl) 100% (10/10)
 Median cell count# (cells/μl, IQR, n = 10) 42 (15–199)
Neuroimaging
 Ischemia on first brain imaging 50% (5/10)
 Hemorrhage on first imaging, ischemia later 20% (2/10)
 Presence of loco-typico HSV lesion 10% (1/10)
 Evidence for vasculitis 63% (5/8)
 Affected vessels
  Small-sized 0%
  Large-sized 100% (5/5)
 Affected areas of circulation
  Anterior 30% (3/10)
  Posterior 20% (2/10)
  Anterior and posterior 50% (5/10)
 Distribution of lesions
  Single 10% (1/10)
  Multiple 90% (9/10)
Intervention
 Steroid treatment 40% (4/10)
Outcome
 Good outcome (mRS 0–2) 56% (5/9)
 Unfavorable outcome (mRS 3–5) 44% (4/9)
 Fatality 0%
  1. #In patients with pleocytosis. IQR interquartile range, PCR polymerase chain reaction, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, HSV herpes simplex virus