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Table 3 CRPS participants reported higher scores for pain, anxiety depression, stress, pain catastrophising and kinesiophobia, as well as reduced pain self-efficacy compared to healthy controls. A table showing participant information, pain and psychological measures in CRPS participants and healthy controls. Visual analogue scale (VAS), Short-form Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale (DASS21), Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ-2), Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) and Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS), Pain Self-efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ). N = 14 CRPS and N = 14 controls. All data are presented as group means (± S.E.M.). ** represents P < 0.01, *** represents P < 0.001 in in a Mann-Whitney U test

From: Expansion and activation of distinct central memory T lymphocyte subsets in complex regional pain syndrome

  Control ± S.E.M. CRPS ± S.E.M.
Sex (F/M) 5/9 10/4
Age (years) 39.21 ± 3.3 46.14 ± 4.2
CRPS type (I/II)   14/0
Time since onset (years)   4.13 ± 1.6
Limb affected (upper/lower)   7/7
CRPS trigger (fracture/soft tissue injury/surgery)   7/4/3
Pain score (VAS 0–100) 7.6 ± 1.1 69.36 ± 3.7***
DASS 21 (0–42) Depression 2.8 ± 1.2 11.14 ± 2.8**
Anxiety 3.0 ± 0.8 14.00 ± 2.0***
Stress 5.8 ± 1.8 17.58 ± 2.0***
SF-MPQ-2 (0–220) 4.8 ± 2.0 113.71 ± 11.0***
PCS (0–52) 3.2 ± 1.6 21.57 ± 2.8***
PSEQ (60–0) 57.4 ± 1.1 24.07 ± 2.9***
TSK (0–68) 29.1 ± 1.6 39.79 ± 1.3***