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Table 1 Summary of the eight main abnormalities related to inflammation and associated consequences in patients with MDD

From: Role of inflammation in depression relapse

Main abnormalities Consequence
Increased levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP and decreased levels of IL-1β and IL-8 [22] rMDD
Increased activity of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hyperactivity of the HPA axis [15] MDD progression and predicted recurrence
Higher levels of IL-6 or CRP [23, 24] Subsequent development of depressive symptoms (e.g., tiredness, lack of energy, sleep problems, and changes in appetite)
Increased inflammatory activity [25] TRD
Intestinal microbes [26, 27] Tryptophan metabolism and the levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, dopamine, and serotonin
Cognitive behavior therapy [28]
Vagus nerve stimulation [29, 30]
Inflammation [31, 32]
Inflammatory processes
Relief of MDD symptoms
Anhedonia and motor retardation
  1. Abbreviations: CRP C-reactive protein, HPA hypothalamic−pituitary−adrenal, IL-6 interleukin-6, rMDD recurrent major depressive disorder, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor-α, TRD treatment-resistant depression