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Table 2 Clinical and neuroimaging findings related to the number of depressive episodes or depression relapse

From: Role of inflammation in depression relapse

Study Characteristics of MDD samples Number of participants per group Brain regions Method
MDD HC  
Serra-Blasco et al. (2013) [76] 22 with first-episode, 22 with remitted–recurrent, and 22 with treatment-resistant/chronic MDD 66 32 dmPFC, left insula Voxel-based morphometry
Treadway et al. (2015) [77] Medication-free MDD 52 51 Dentate, dmPFC Volumetric analyses
Stratmann et al. (2014) [78] 35 with first-episode and 97 with rMDD 132 132 Right hippocampus, right amygdala Voxel-based morphometry
Meng et al. (2014) [79] 25 with rMDD 25 25 Right putamen Graph-based methods
Greicius et al. (2007) [80] MDD 28 20 sgACC Independent component analysis
Jacobs et al. (2016) [81] 17 with active MDD and 34 with remitted MDD 51 26 Left PCC and left inferior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, left amygdala with the right anterior insula, caudate and claustrum Functional connectivity
Lythe et al. (2015) [84] 31 MDD without relapse and 25 MDD with relapse 56 39 Right superior anterior temporal lobe and the sgACC Functional connectivity
Workman et al. (2016) [85] 30 MDD without relapse and 17 MDD with relapse 47 35 Left sgACC, right sgACC Functional connectivity
Zaremba et al. (2018) [86] 23 MDD without relapse and 37 MDD with relapse 60 54 Insular and dlPFC Voxel-based morphometry
  1. Abbreviations: dlPFC dorsolateral prefrontal gyrus, dmPFC dorsomedial prefrontal gyrus, HC healthy controls, PCC posterior cingulate cortex, rMDD recurrent major depressive disorder, sgACC subgenual anterior cingulate cortex