Skip to main content


Fig. 6 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 6

From: Morphine immunomodulation prolongs inflammatory and postoperative pain while the novel analgesic ZH853 accelerates recovery and protects against latent sensitization

Fig. 6

Immunohistochemistry following CFA and drug. Tissue was taken 25 days after CFA in the CFA-then-drug paradigm and 21 days after CFA in the drug-then-CFA paradigm. a CFA then drug. Staining at this time point did not show higher microglial activation in any group, but pp38 was decreased by ZH853, and IL-1β and CGRP were increased by morphine relative to vehicle and ZH853. Astrocyte activation and P2X7Rs were increased in morphine-treated animals compared to ZH853-treated animals. b Drug then CFA. Microglial activation was greater in animals pretreated with morphine- versus vehicle- and ZH853-treated animals. pp38 was increased by morphine and decreased by ZH853, producing a significant difference between drugs. IL-1β was significantly decreased by ZH853 relative to morphine and vehicle. CGRPR staining was increased by morphine relative to vehicle- or ZH853-treated animals. Astrocyte activation was decreased by ZH853 relative to vehicle and morphine, and P2X7R was increased by morphine relative to vehicle and ZH853. n indicated in bar graphs. Error bars indicate SEM. One-way ANOVAs were performed for each marker. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001

Back to article page