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Fig. 5 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 5

From: TRPV1 mediates astrocyte activation and interleukin-1β release induced by hypoxic ischemia (HI)

Fig. 5

Knocking out TRPV1 reduced infarct volume, brain atrophy, and neurobehavioral loss. a Representative TTC stained coronal brain sections from the sham, HI, and capsaicin treatment groups with different injection times as shown, n = 7–8 for each group. b Quantitative analysis of the infarct volume revealed that knocking out TRPV1 or pretreating with capsaicin reduced the infarct volume. c Whole brain Nissl staining from the sham, HI, and capsaicin treatment groups are shown. n = 8 for each group. d Quantitative analysis of brain atrophy in which knocking out TRPV1 or pretreating with capsaicin produced reduction the infarct volume. n = 8 for each group. e Confocal images showed knocking out TRPV1 inhibited the increase of IL-1β-positive astrocytes compared to HI group in the ipsilateral hemisphere. White arrows indicate IL-1β-positive astrocytes and the scale bar = 100 μm, scale bar = 50 μm for the enlarged image. f IL-1β-positive astrocytes percentage was determined in 10 fields/section and divided by the number of cells counterstained with DAPI. n = 4 for each group. g The geotaxis reflex results at 1, 3, and 7 days, showing the time that pups took to turn around. n = 9–14 for each group. h The cliff aversion reaction results at 1, 3, and 7 days, demonstrating the time that pups took to turn their head at the cliff. n = 9–14 for each group. i The grip test results at 1, 3, and 7 days, showing the time that pups were able to hold onto a horizontal bar. n = 9–14 for each group. Cap, 3 mg/kg capsaicin. Average values represent the mean ± SEM. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 versus control (Tukey’s test after one-way ANOVA). #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.001 versus WT-HI (Tukey’s test after one-way ANOVA)

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