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Table 1 Cited studies on the effects of antibiotics in AD rodent models and humans

From: Antibiotics, gut microbiota, and Alzheimer’s disease

Antibiotic Species Target Effects References
Streptozotocin -Mice
-Rats
-Gram-positive bacteria
-Pancreatic islet cells
-Memory deficits [90, 93]
Ampicillin -Rats -Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria -Increased serum corticosterone
-Increased anxiety
-Memory deficits
[87]
Cefepime -Humans -Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria -Reduced consciousness, myoclonus, confusion [96]
Amoxicillin -Humans -Gram-positive bacteria -Improved cognition [97]
Rifampicin -Humans
-Rats
-Mice
-Bacterial DNA-dependent RNA synthesis -Anti-cholinesterase
-Anti-oxidative
-Anti-inflammatory
-Reduced Aβ
[98, 102, 103]
Minocycline -Mice
-Rats
-Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria -Reduced inflammation and microglia activation
-Improved cognition
-Reduced Aβ
[99]
Rapamycin -Mice
-Rats
-Antifungal
-Immunosuppressant
-mTOR inhibitor
-Improved cognition
-Reduced tau
-Reduced Aβ
-Reduced microglia activation
[100, 105]
d-Cycloserin -Humans
-Rats
-Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
-NMDA receptor partial agonist
-Improved cognition [101, 104]
Doxycycline -Humans
-Mice
-Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria -Improved cognition
-Reduced inflammation
[102, 103]