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Table 3 Clinical trial of targeting directly/indirectly the NLRP3 inflammasome in stroke and diabetes

From: NLRP3 inflammasome as a potential treatment in ischemic stroke concomitant with diabetes

  Target Drug regimen Main finding Reference
Stroke patients IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) (anakinra) 100 mg twice daily for 3 day in patients presenting within 5 hours of the ischemic stroke onset Reduction of plasma IL-6 and plasma CRP for the first 3 days [98]
IL-1beta antibody (canakinumab) A dose of 150 mg every 3 months Lower rate of recurrent cardiovascular events [99, 100]
NLRP3 inhibitor drugs (atorvastatin) 80 mg/day Lower plasma levels of IL-1β, CRP, TNF-a, and other immune-inflammatory markers at 72 h and 7 days after stroke [101]
Diabetic patients IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) (anakinra) Lasting a 52-week treatment Improvement of the fasting ratio of proinsulin to insulin (PI/I); reduction of plasma IL-6 and CRP [69]
IL-1beta antibody (canakinumab) Canakinumab 150 mg Improving ISR relative to glucose 0–0.5 h in patients treated with insulin [102]
IL-1beta antibody (LY2189102) LY2189102 (0.6, 18, and 180 mg) administered weekly for 12 weeks Reduction of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting and postprandial glucose, hs-CRP, and IL-6 [103]
  1. IL-1Ra IL-1 receptor antagonist, CRP C-reactive protein, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c