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Fig. 2 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 2

From: Malva parviflora extract ameliorates the deleterious effects of a high fat diet on the cognitive deficit in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease by restoring microglial function via a PPAR-γ-dependent mechanism

Fig. 2

Malva parviflora hydroalcoholic extract promotes insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in 5XFAD transgenic mice fed with high-fat diet. a Graphical time line of the study design and experimental procedures. GTT, glucose tolerance test; IRT, insulin resistant test; IFC, immunofluorescence. b Body weight gain (g) was measured weekly during 28 weeks in wild type (Wt) mice fed with normal diet (ND; closed black circle) or high-fat diet (HFD; closed black triangle) and those that received intragastrically water or 50 mg/kg/day of the MpHE (Mp): Wt ND + Mp (open black circle) or Wt HFD + Mp (open black triangle), or transgenic 5XFAD mice fed with a normal diet (ND; closed red circle) or a high-fat diet (HFD; closed red triangle) that received intragastrically water or 50 mg/kg/day of the MpHE (Mp): 5XFAD ND + Mp (open red circle), or 5XFAD HFD + Mp (open red triangle). Data are shown as mean ± SEM, n = 4 in Wt ND, n = 4 in Wt HFD, n = 4 in Wt ND + Mp, n = 4 in Wt HFD + Mp, n = 10 in 5XFAD ND, n = 10 in 5XFAD HDF, n = 10 in 5XFAD ND + Mp and n = 9 in 5XFAD HFD + Mp. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA with repeated measures followed by post hoc Bonferroni’s multiple comparisons test. This analysis revealed a significant effect for the genotype F(7,47) = 9.971, p < 0.001; for the time F(27,1269) = 206.5 p < 0.001 and for the genotype and time interaction F(189, 1269), p < 0.001. (*p = 0.0488, **p = 0.0069, ***p < 0.001). c Basal blood glucose concentrations in Wt or transgenic 5XFAD mice after 8 months of being fed with ND or HFD alone or treated with Mp. Data are shown as mean ± SEM, n = 4 for all the groups. Statistical analysis was performed by three-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparisons test. This analysis revealed a significant effect for the genotype F(1,24) = 5.029, p = 0.03440; for the diet F(1,24) = 25.08, p < 0.001; for the M. parviflora treatment F(1,24) = 18.56; p = 0.002; for the genotype and diet interaction F(1,24) = 11, p = 0.0029; for the M. parviflora treatment and diet interaction F(1,24) = 24.99, p < 0.001; for the genotype and M. parviflora treatment interaction F(1,24) = 8.661 p = 0.0071; and for the genotype, M. parviflora treatment, and diet interaction F(1,24) = 0.2458, p = 0.6245. d Blood glucose during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (GTT) of Wt or transgenic 5XFAD mice 8 months after of being fed with ND or HFD alone or treated with M. parviflora (Mp). Bar graph (lower panel) represents the area under the curve (AUC). Data are shown as mean ± SEM, n = 4 for all the groups. Statistical analysis was performed by three-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparisons test. This analysis revealed a significant effect for the genotype F(1,24) = 36.52, p < 0.001; for the diet F(1,24) = 45.37, p < 0.001; for the M. parviflora treatment F(1,24) = 46.23, p < 0.001; for the genotype and diet interaction F(1,24) = 0.0002756, p = 0.9869; for the M. parviflora treatment and diet interaction F(1,24) = 9.277, p = 0.0056; for the genotype and M. parviflora treatment interaction F(1,24) = 3.678 p = 0.0671; and for the genotype, M. parviflora treatment, and diet interaction F(1,24) = 0.5456, p = 0.4673. e Blood glucose levels were measured at several time points following insulin administration during the insulin resistance test (IRT) of Wt or transgenic 5XFAD mice 8 months after of being fed with ND or HFD alone or treated with M. parviflora (Mp). Bar graph (lower panel) represents the area under the curve (AUC). Statistical analysis was performed by three-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparisons test. This analysis revealed a significant effect for the genotype F(1,24) = 356.6, p < 0.001; for the diet F(1,24) = 38.47, p < 0.001; for the M. parviflora treatment F(1,24) = 36.14, p < 0.001; for the genotype and diet interaction F(1,24) = 7.772, p = 0.0102; for the M. parviflora treatment and diet interaction F(1,24) = 4.078, p = 0.0547; for the genotype and M. parviflora treatment interaction F(1,24) = 15.14 p = 0.007; and for the genotype, M. parviflora treatment, and diet interaction F(1,24) = 3.468, p = 0.0749

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