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Fig. 2 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 2

From: Tranexamic acid reduces heme cytotoxicity via the TLR4/TNF axis and ameliorates functional recovery after spinal cord injury

Fig. 2

Intralesional heme released from lysed RBCs is involved in the pathology of SCI. a A schematic illustration of protocol of the autologous RBCs injection experiments. Packed (non-lysed) or lysed RBCs were injected into naïve spinal cords. b IHC and LFB staining revealed the TER119-positive RBCs (red) and LFB-negative demyelinated area on 4-day after the injection of lysed- or packed RBCs. Lysed RBCs were associated with demyelination around the injection sites. c The heme concentration of the lysed RBC solutions was significantly increased in comparison to the packed RBC solutions (n = 4 in each group). d The intralesional heme concentration in the injured spinal cords at 1 dpi was significantly increased in comparison to sham (laminectomy only) spinal cords (n = 6 in each group). e A qRT-PCR showed that the mRNA expression of Hpx and Hmox1 in the injured spinal cord was significantly upregulated in comparison to sham mice at 1 dpi (n = 4 in each group). f A schematic illustration of heme cytotoxicity after SCI. Scale bars, 500 μm (b). *p < 0.05, Wilcoxon rank-sum test (ce). Error bars indicate the SEM

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