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Fig. 3 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 3

From: Metformin mediates neuroprotection and attenuates hearing loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

Fig. 3

Inflammatory CSF cytokine levels, bacterial titers and cerebral complications during acute pneumococcal meningitis. Six hours after treatment initiation, adjuvant metformin significantly reduced levels of IL-1β (p = 0.015 and p = 0.034 at 24 h after treatment initiation, a), IL-6 (p = 0.036, b), and TNF-α (p = 0.044, d) and showed a trend toward reduced IL-10 levels (p = 0.059, c), despite having comparable CSF cytokine levels and bacterial titers at time of therapy initiation (ae). Adjuvant metformin significantly reduced levels of cortical necrosis at 42 h post infection (p = 0.0101, f)

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