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Table 1 Cohort characteristics

From: Plasma neurofilament light chain and amyloid-β are associated with the kynurenine pathway metabolites in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease

  All participants Low NAL High NAL p
Gender (N, males/females) 32/68 19/46 13/22 .419
Age (years) 78.18 ± 5.52 77.61 ± 5.55 79.22 ± 5.38 .165
APOE ε4 carriers (N, %) 21 (21) 5 (7.7) 16 (45.7) < .0001
Education (years) 14.43 ± 3.26 14.84 ± 3.37 13.64 ± 2.91 .078
MMSE (score) 28.61 ± 1.14 28.50 ± 1.16 28.80 ± 1.10 .225
NAL (SUVR) 1.35 ± 0.31 1.15 ± 0.08 1.71 ± 0.26
Tryptophan (μM) 43.33 ± 7.72 42.87 ± 8.15 44.17 ± 6.87 .350
Kynurenine (μM) 2.23 ± 0.58 2.12 ± 0.52 2.41 ± 0.63 < .05
Kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (K/T) 52.61 ± 15.44 50.73 ± 13.94 56.08 ± 17.58 .121
Kynurenic Acid (nM) 52.06 ± 27.44 49.71 ± 26.25 56.41 ± 29.40 .238
3-Hydroxykynurenine (nM) 119.45 ± 37.47 117.74 ± 34.73 122.60 ± 42.42 .554
3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid (nM) 22.63 ± 9.14 22.15 ± 9.25 23.50 ± 8.99 .406
Anthranilic acid (nM) 35.48 ± 19.79 31.40 ± 14.99 43.04 ± 25.02 < .005
Picolinic acid (nM) 109.38 ± 49.82 112.06 ± 56.25 104.40 ± 35.07 .572
Quinolinic acid (nM) 171.83 ± 74.48 169.76 ± 75.89 175.66 ± 72.71 .689
  1. Baseline characteristics including gender, age, APOE ε4 status, education, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, and neocortical amyloid-β load (NAL) represented by the standard uptake value ratio (SUVR) of ligand 18F-florbetaben assessed via positron emission tomography, in the neocortical region normalised with that in the cerebellum, have been compared between low NAL (SUVR< 1.35) and high NAL (SUVR ≥ 1.35) study participants. Chi-square tests or linear models were employed as appropriate. Data have been presented in mean ± SD unless otherwise mentioned. Kynurenine to tryptophan ratios for all participants were multiplied by 1000. All p values for the kynurenine pathway metabolites were obtained from variables transformed to the logarithmic scale for analyses to meet assumptions of the statistical test employed