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Table 3 Comparison of the percentages of cytokine-producing γδ T cell subsets between untreated MS patients, IFN-β-treated MS patients, and healthy controls

From: Long-term use of interferon-β in multiple sclerosis increases Vδ1Vδ2Vγ9 γδ T cells that are associated with a better outcome

  Untreated MS (n = 34) MS w/ IFN-β (n = 21) HCs (n = 44) p value (K-W test) padj value
Untreated MS vs. HCs MS w/ IFN-β vs. HCs Untreated MS vs. MS w/ IFN-β
In Vδ1+ γδ T cells
IL-17A+ 0.13 (0.00–0.49) 0.40 (0.02–1.03) 0.18 (0.01–0.72) NS
IFN-γ+ 36.0 (17.3–46.2) 29.6 (7.35–39.3) 45.8 (24.4–60.8) 0.012 0.017 0.004 NS
IL-17A+IFN-γ+ 0.03 (0.00–0.13) 0.17 (0.00–0.55) 0.08 (0.00–0.31) NS
IL-17AIFN-γ 64.0 (53.8–81.8) 69.3 (60.7–91.9) 54.1 (39.1–75.5) 0.011 0.016 0.004 NS
In Vδ2+ γδ T cells
IL-17A+ 0.07 (0.00–0.42) 0.00 (0.00–1.63) 0.13 (0.01–0.52) NS
IFN-γ+ 43.1 (9.70–81.2) 39.4 (23.7–64.4) 83.6 (69.1–92.7) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 NS
IL-17A+IFN-γ+ 0.00 (0.00–0.12) 0.00 (0.00–0.50) 0.11 (0.01–0.42) 0.011 NS NS NS
IL-17AIFN-γ 56.0 (18.7–90.2) 60.6 (35.7–76.4) 16.0 (7.30–30.9) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 NS
In Vδ1Vδ2 γδ T cells
IL-17A+ 0.58 (0.26–1.40) 0.79 (0.40–1.87) 1.24 (0.66–2.81) 0.030 NS NS NS
IFN-γ+ 29.1 (11.2–40.1) 18.3 (11.6–34.4) 47.1 (32.5–58.2) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 NS
IL-17A+IFN-γ+ 0.23 (0.01–0.51) 0.41 (0.08–0.65) 0.35 (0.19–1.22) NS
IL-17AIFN-γ 70.7 (59.4–88.4) 81.4 (64.7–87.8) 51.7 (41.3–66.9) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 NS
  1. Values are the median (IQR). Percentages of each population are shown. Data from one untreated MS patients was missing
  2. p values (K-W test) were obtained by Kruskal-Wallis analyses, and if they were statistically significant, then padj values were calculated using multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for age and sex
  3. HCs healthy controls, IFN interferon, IL interleukin, IQR interquartile ranges, K-W Kruskal-Wallis, MS multiple sclerosis, NS not significant, w/ with