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Fig. 1 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 1

From: Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid extracellular vesicles reveals synaptic injury, inflammation, and stress response markers in HIV patients with cognitive impairment

Fig. 1

Characterization of CSF EVs from HIV+ subjects. a Workflow for proteomic analyses of CSF EVs and EV-depleted CSF. b Transmission electron micrograph of whole-mounted CSF EVs from a representative HIV+ subject. EVs are indicated with black arrows. Scale bar = 100 nm. c Histogram of CSF EV size distribution by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) from a representative HIV+ subject. d Immunoblotting for exosome markers Hsp70, FLOT-1, CD81, and CD9 in CSF EV fractions from two representative HIV+ subjects. EV-depleted CSF from the corresponding samples were used as controls (Ctrl). e Silver staining of EV and EV-depleted CSF proteins (Ctrl) from two representative HIV+ subjects. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE prior to staining. MW denotes molecular weight markers

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