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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study cohort

From: Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid extracellular vesicles reveals synaptic injury, inflammation, and stress response markers in HIV patients with cognitive impairment

 HIV+ (n = 20)no HAND (n = 10)HAND (n = 10)
Age (years)52.2 (47–59)51.3 (46.-61)52.3 (50–58)
Gender (male, n, %)20 (100)10 (100)10 (100)
Race (n, %)
 Black5 (25)2 (20)3 (30)
 White15 (75)8 (80)7 (70)
Smoking (n, %)12 (75)7 (70)5 (83)
Alcohol use (n, %)3 (15)1 (10)2 (20)
Cocaine use (n, %)4 (20)0 (0)4 (40)
Hepatitis C seropositivity (n, %)9 (45)5 (50)4 (40)
Cerebrovascular disease (n, %)3 (15)0 (0)3 (30)
Depression (n, %)8 (44)5 (50)3 (37)
Duration of HIV infection (years)13.3 (10–21)15.5 (13–21)11.5 (6–19)
HIV RNA
 Plasma VL700 (48–44,131)38.4 (26–17,774)4064 (700–236,292)
 Plasma (< 50 copies/ml)13 (65)9 (90)4 (40)
 CSF (< 50 copies/ml) *16 (94)9 (100)7 (87)
CD4 count (cells/μl)162 (116–373)262.5 (146–411)157 (75–182)
 < 350 cells/μl13 (65)5 (50)8 (80)
Nadir CD4 count (cells/μl)31.5 (12–64)15 (12–46)55 (23–71)
 < 200 cells/μl (n, %)18 (90)9 (90)9 (90)
CSF WBC (cells/μl)1 (0–2)2 (1–2)0 (0–1)
ART use (n, %)18 (90)10 (100)8 (80)
 Protease inhibitors16 (80)8 (80)8 (80)
 Nucleoside RT inhibitors17 (85)10 (100)7 (70)
 Integrase inhibitors4 (20)2 (20)2 (20)
HIV encephalitis1 (5)0 (0)1 (10)**
  1. Abbreviations: HAND HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, IQR interquartile range, VL viral load, WBC white blood cells, ART antiretroviral therapy, RT reverse transcriptase, Data represent median (IQR) unless otherwise indicated; *Not available for 3 subjects. ** HIV encephalitis was diagnosed at autopsy in 1 subject with MND. Among subjects with HAND, 7 died within 6 years following the sample date; causes of death included cirrhosis, renal disease, pneumonia, lymphoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma, metastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma