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Fig. 4 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 4

From: The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist reduces inflammation and blood-brain barrier breakdown in an astrocyte-dependent manner in experimental stroke

Fig. 4

Ex-4 reduced the expression of VEGF-A, MMP-9, CXCL-1, and MCP-1 in OGD+RO-treated astrocytes in vitro. a The expression of the IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β, VEGF-A, MCP-1, CXCL-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 mRNAs in astrocytes subjected to different treatments in vitro was measured using qRT-PCR; GAPDH was used as the control (n = 6). b Levels of the IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β, VEGF-A, MCP-1, and CXCL-1 proteins secreted by astrocytes exposed to different treatments were measured using ELISAs (n = 6). c Representative western blots showing VEGF-A expression in astrocytes administered different treatments, and the VEGF-A intensity was normalized to GAPDH (n = 6). d The levels of MMP-9 secreted from astrocytes exposed to different treatments were measured using gelatin zymography, and the relative intensity was compared with the Medium group (n = 6). e, f Representative images of immunofluorescence staining for VEGF-A (e) and MMP-9 (f) (red) in astrocytes; nuclei were labeled with DAPI (blue) (n = 5). Scale bar = 100 μm. Medium, cultured with normal medium; Ex4, treated with Ex4 for 24 h; OGD+RO, treated with OGD for 4 h plus RO for 24 h; OGD+RO+Ex4, treated with OGD for 4 h plus RO for 4 h in the presence of Ex-4. *P < 0.01 compared with the Medium group; #P < 0.01 compared with the Ex4 group; $P < 0.01 compared with the OGD+RO+Ex4 group, ANOVA plus SNK test (ad)

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