Skip to main content
Fig. 1 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 1

From: Fibrinolysis protease receptors promote activation of astrocytes to express pro-inflammatory cytokines

Fig. 1

Plg induces expression of cytokines independently of tPA in N-astrocytes ac N-astrocytes were serum-starved for 30 min and then treated for 6 h with plasminogen (Plg, 0.2 μM) plus tPA (12 nM), lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1 μg/mL), lipoteichoic acid (LTA, 1.0 μg/mL) or oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN, 1 μM). Expression of the mRNAs encoding TNFα, IL-1β and CCL2 was determined (mean ± SEM; n = 3; ***p < 0.001; one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test. Statistical analysis is relative to the vehicle control). d BMDMs were treated for 3 h with Plg plus tPA, LPS, LTA or ODN. RT-qPCR was performed to compare mRNA levels for TNFα (mean ± SEM; n = 3; ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01; one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test). The presented results show the “fold increase” in mRNA expression compared with cultures treated with vehicle. e Serum-starved N-astrocytes were treated for 1 h with Plg plus tPA, LPS, LTA (1.0 μg/mL), (1 μM), or vehicle. Equal amounts of cellular protein (30 μg) were subjected to immunoblot analysis to detect phospho-IκBα, IκBα and β-actin. f Microglia were serum-starved for 30 min and then treated for 6 h with Plg (0.2 μM), Plg plus tPA (12 nM), LPS (0.1 μg/mL) or vehicle. RNA was isolated and RT-qPCR was performed to determine TNFα mRNA (mean ± SEM; n = 3; ***p < 0.001; one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test. Statistical analysis is relative to the vehicle control). g Microglia were incubated for 1 h with Plg (0.2 μM), Plg plus tPA (12 nM), or LPS (0.1 μg/mL). Immunoblot analysis was performed to determine phospho-IκBα, total IκBα and β-actin. hj N-astrocytes were serum-starved for 30 min and then treated with tPA alone (12 nM), Plg (0.2 μM) alone, or tPA plus Plg for 6 h. Expression of the mRNAs encoding TNFα, IL-1β, and CCL2 was determined (mean ± SEM; n = 3; ***p < 0.001; one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test. Statistical analysis is relative to the vehicle control). k N-astrocytes were incubated for 1 h with tPA (12 nM), Plg (0.2 μM), or with tPA plus Plg. Immunoblot analysis was performed to detect phospho-IκBα, IκBα and β-actin. l N-astrocytes were treated with Plg (0.2 μM) for the indicated times. Immunoblot analysis was performed to detect phospho-IκBα, IκBα, and β-actin

Back to article page