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Fig. 5 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 5

From: The cerebrovascular and neurological impact of chronic smoking on post-traumatic brain injury outcome and recovery: an in vivo study

Fig. 5

Effect of premorbid TS exposure and TBI on plasma level of thrombomodulin. ELISA measurement of thrombomodulin levels in the blood samples collected at a 24 h after TBI and b 3 days after TBI. Note how TS exposure promotes downregulation of thrombomodulin and therefore potentially impairing blood hemostasis such as the control of the blood coagulation cascade. n = 6 biological replicates for each experimental group. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ****p < 0.0001 vs. control. ###p < 0.001, ####p < 0.0001 vs. smoke. @@@@p < 0.0001 vs. TBI

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