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Fig. 8 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 8

From: Metformin inhibits intracranial aneurysm formation and progression by regulating vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype switching via the AMPK/ACC pathway

Fig. 8

Schematic illustrating how metformin modulates the phenotype switching in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) to inhibit the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysm. Metformin could inhibit the phenotype switching of VSMC from contractile to synthetic phenotype by activating AMPK/ACC pathway, resulting in upregulation of VSMC-specific markers αSMA, SM22α, and decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, MMP-3/9, TNF-α, and iNOS, suppressing formation and progression of intracranial aneurysm ultimately

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