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Table 1 Participant demographics and clinical characteristics (mean ± S.E.)

From: Microstructural brain abnormalities in HIV+ individuals with or without chronic marijuana use

  SN nonusers (N = 24) SN-MJ user (N = 22) HIV nonusers (N = 23) HIV + MJ user (N = 21) p value
Age (years) 44.6 ± 2.8 45.3 ± 2.1 46.8 ± 2.4 46.3 ± 1.9 0.904a
Age range (18.5–68.9) (25.9–65.8) (28.3–70.3) (26–60.7)
# Men (%) 21 (87.5%) 19 (86.4%) 22 (95.7%) 20 (95.2%) 0.567b
Education (years) 14.8 ± 0.5 13.7 ± 0.5 15.2 ± 0.4 14.2 ± 0.5 0.167a
WTAR Predicted Verbal IQ 109.8 ± 1.6 106.4 ± 2.1 107.9 ± 1.6 103.7 ± 1.9 0.103 a
Race (W/As/B/NH/NA/Mixed) 12/4/1/1/1/5 13/0/1/1/0/3 11/7/1/0/0/5 13/3/1/1/0/4 0.629b
Index of Social Position (8–66) 36.3 ± 3.4 40.2 ± 3.8 35.8 ± 3.3 44.8 ± 3.6 0.233a
CES-Depression score (0–60) 5.9 ± 0.9 13.0 ± 3.3 14.3 ± 2.0 13.0 ± 1.9 0.015a
HIV disease-related
 Duration (months) 327.4 ± 29.9 339.4 ± 31.5 0.837d
 # With Detectable HIV RNA (> 40 copies/mL, %) 3 (13.0%) 4 (19.1 %) 0.488b
 Log plasma HIV RNA 1.8 ± 0.2 2.0 ± 0.3 0.420c
 Plasma HIV RNA (copies/mL)* 4,064 ± 3,970 2,933 ± 1,774 0.814c
 # (%) on combined antiretrovirals 23 (100%) 21 (100%)  
 CD4 count (#/mm3) 511.9 ± 42.4 563.4 ± 65.4 0.514d
 Nadir CD4 count (#/mm3) 250.6 ± 46.4 218.1 ± 46.0 0.622d
 HIV dementia scale (0–16) 14.3 ± 0.5 14.2 ± 0.6 0.886d
 Karnofsky score (0–100) 94.5 ± 1.4 92.9 ± 1.4 0.405d
 # (%) with HAND or equivalent** 5 (20.8%) 6 (27.3%) 8 (34.8%) 6 (28.6%) 0.705b
Marijuana usage, median (range)
 Age at first use (years) 15.5 (8–39) 16 (9–40) 0.906d
 Daily average use (g) 0.5 (0.02–3.5) 0.4 (0.04–3.6) 0.699e
 Total lifetime use (kg) 3.5 (0.06–54.5) 3.2 (0.08–39.6) 0.941c
 Duration of MJ use (years) 27.3 (1.9–45.3) 31.8 (3.7–41.7) 0.784c
Tobacco Smoking, median (range)
 # Lifetime tobacco smokers (%) 12 (50.0%) 18 (81.8%) 11 (47.8%) 17 (81.0%) 0.016b
 # Smokers in the past month (%) 9 (37.5%) 13 (59.1%) 5 (21.7%) 8 (40.0%) 0.085b
 Daily average use (g, range) 24.4 (0.5–76.3) 19.9 (0.002–61) 29.9 (0.01–61) 27.5 (2.0–39.3) 0.774e
 Total lifetime use (pack-year) (range) 10.8 (0.01–39.9) 16.1 (0.0001–59.3) 14.0 (0.0002–50.4) 16.4 (0.2–37.0) 0.733e
 Duration of use (year, range) 14.8 (0.6–32.5) 23.9 (1–48.1) 17.9 (0.6–35.9) 25.8 (2.9–41.7) 0.241e
 Duration of abstinence (months) 0 (0–390) 0 (0–483) 3 (0–332) 0 (0–370) 0.367e
Alcohol usage, median (range)
 # Lifetime alcohol users (%) 22 (91.7%) 19 (86.4%) 21 (95.5%) 20 (95.2%) 0.651b
 Regular use (> 1/week) in the past month (%) 6 (25.0%) 14 (63.6%) 6 (27.3%) 7 (33.3%) 0.004b
 Daily average use (mL) 9.4 (0.06–48.9) 12.3 (0.4–41.8) 6.1 (0.2–63.0) 7.7 (0.4–186.9) 0.632e
 Total lifetime use (L, range) 71.5 (0.1–655) 110.3 (0.9–613) 86.8 (0.4–968) 56.6 (0.1–2491) 0.767e
 Duration of use (years) 22.9 (2.3–46.5) 25.0 (5.7–45.5) 23.2 (9.0–46.6) 29.1 (0.9–44.8) 0.792e
 Duration of abstinence (months) 0 (0–63) 0 (0–59) 1 (0–89) 0 (0–91) 0.197e
  1. p values < 0.05 are bolded
  2. WTAR Wechsler Test of Adult Reading, CES-D Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression Scale, Index of Social Position assessed using the Hollingshead Four Factor Index of Social Position, Race White/Asian/Black/Native Hawaiian/Native American/more than one race
  3. #Tobacco use status was missing in 5 participants; alcohol use status was missing in 3 participants
  4. *Plasma HIV RNA was calculated from 3 (HIV+) and 4 (HIV + smoker) participants with detectable viruses
  5. **HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) diagnoses: HIV nonuser (3 ANI, 3 MND, 2 HAD), HIV + MJ users (2 ANI, 2 MND, 2 HAD), or HAND equivalent in the SN groups: SN nonuser (4 ANI and 1MND) and SN-MJ (4 ANI and 2 MND)
  6. These variables were calculated only among the users
  7. aANOVA
  8. bχ2
  9. cMann-Whitney U
  10. dStudent t test
  11. eKruskal-Wallis Test