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Table 2 The effect of MIA induced by LPS and Poly I:C treatment on the gene expression of M1-like microglial markers and pro-inflammatory factors: MhcII, Cd68, Cd40, iNos, Il-1β, Tnf-α and Il-6, and M2-like microglial markers and anti-inflammatory factors: Arg1, Igf-1, Tgf-β, Il-4 and Il-10, in the hippocampi (Hp) and the frontal cortices (Cx) of offspring at PND7. The mRNA levels were measured using qRT-PCR with n = 4–8 in each group. The results are presented as the average fold change ± SEMs

From: The prenatal challenge with lipopolysaccharide and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid disrupts CX3CL1-CX3CR1 and CD200-CD200R signalling in the brains of male rat offspring: a link to schizophrenia-like behaviours

Factor  Gene expression
Hp Cx Hp Cx
kLPS LPS kLPS LPS kPoly Poly kPoly Poly
M1-like phenotype
MhcII 1.03 ± 0.09 0.83 ± 0.06 0.98 ± 0.18 0.91 ± 0.11 1.02 ± 0.08 0.84 ± 0.12 1.17 ± 0.24 0.90 ± 0.11
Cd68 1.09 ± 0.07 1.44 ± 0.29 1.05 ± 0.13 1.02 ± 0.13 1.08 ± 0.18 0.76 ± 0.09 0.93 ± 0.03 0.81 ± 0.07
Cd40 1.01 ± 0.04 1.16 ± 0.14 0.97 ± 0.07 1.36 ± 0.14* 1.02 ± 0.09 0.92 ± 0.10 1.00 ± 0.04 0.80 ± 0.05*
iNos 0.96 ± 0.34 1.44 ± 0.21 0.92 ± 0.20 1.03 ± 0.21 0.81 ± 0.11 1.49 ± 0.26* 1.14 ± 0.21 1.21 ± 0.29
Il-1β 1.02 ± 0.08 1.79 ± 0.27* 1.02 ± 0.09 1.16 ± 0.12 1.04 ± 0.11 1.09 ± 0.07 1.03 ± 0.10 0.81 ± 0.05
Tnf-α 1.00 ± 0.03 1.63 ± 0.29* 1.02 ± 0.08 1.22 ± 0.14 1.08 ± 0.17 0.82 ± 0.06 1.04 ± 0.12 0.83 ± 0.07
Il-6 1.02 ± 0.08 1.24 ± 0.11 1.03 ± 0.10 1.20 ± 0.13 1.05 ± 0.11 0.92 ± 0.08 0.94 ± 0.12 1.37 ± 0.11*
M2-like phenotype
Arg1 1.01 ± 0.05 1.59 ± 0.25* 1.02 ± 0.08 1.19 ± 0.12 1.05 ± 0.13 0.94 ± 0.08 1.04 ± 0.13 0.95 ± 0.09
Igf-1 1.01 ± 0.06 0.94 ± 0.02 1.00 ± 0.03 0.98 ± 0.06 1.03 ± 0.10 1.28 ± 0.09 1.02 ± 0.06 1.10 ± 0.05
Tgf-β 1.01 ± 0.05 1.64 ± 0.26* 1.08 ± 0.12 1.21 ± 0.09 1.03 ± 0.09 0.96 ± 0.06 1.02 ± 0.09 0.74 ± 0.04*
Il-4 1.05 ± 0.12 0.95 ± 0.11 1.21 ± 0.29 1.10 ± 0.25 1.03 ± 0.09 0.91 ± 0.10 Not detected  Not detected
Il-10 1.09 ± 0.18 1.77 ± 0.26* 0.86 ± 0.27 1.11 ± 0.19 1.04 ± 0.12 1.57 ± 0.21 1.06 ± 0.15 0.40 ± 0.07*
  1. *p < 0.05 vs. appropriate control (kLPS or kPoly)