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Table 1 Association of the pro-inflammatory cytokine with the AD

From: The effect of insomnia on development of Alzheimer’s disease

Cytokine CNS origin Aβ deposition Neurons Tau protein Reference
IL-1 Astrocytes, Glial cells, Neurons Death of neurons ↑
Invasion of neutrophils into CNS ↑
Release of toxins from glial and endothelial cells↑
Tau phosphorylation ↑ [199,200,201,202,203]
IL-6 Microglia, Astrocytes ~ Anti-apoptotic Tau phosphorylation↑ [204,205,206]
IL-18 Activated microglia, astrocytes, ependymal cells, neurons Pro-apoptotic Phosphorylation of tau↑ [207,208,209]
IFN-ɣ T cells, Glia, Neurons Neural degeneration ↑ phosphorylation of tau↑ [210,211,212,213]
TNF-α Microglia, Astrocytes, Neurons Pro-apoptotic Tau phosphorylation↑ [214,215,216]
IL-12 Glial cells , Activated blood monocytes Aβ deposition↑ Pro-apoptotic ↑ Tau levels in CSF ↑ [217, 218]
  1. ↑: increase
  2. ↓: decrease
  3. ~: both increase and decrease