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Table 3 Effects of Tat and morphine on cytokine concentrations in the striatum of Tat transgenic mice that are not presented in Figs. 5 and 6

From: Escalating morphine dosing in HIV-1 Tat transgenic mice with sustained Tat exposure reveals an allostatic shift in neuroinflammatory regulation accompanied by increased neuroprotective non-endocannabinoid lipid signaling molecules and amino acids

Striatal cytokines Genotype Repeated saline Repeated morphine Genotype effect drug effect Genotype x drug
pg/mL   mean ± SEM mean ± SEM F1, 19 p F1, 19 p F1, 19 p
Proinflammatory Cytokines
 IL-2 Tat(−) 10.7 ± 0.61 10.7 ± 0.18 < 1.0 0.59 < 1.0 0.48 < 1.0 0.50
Tat(+) 10.6 ± 0.33 11.2 ± 0.12
 IL-6 Tat(−) 2.5 ± 0.08 3.2 ± 0.13 1.6 0.22 33.0 < 0.01 1.7 0.20
Tat(+) 2.5 ± 0.08 2.9 ± 0.13
 IFN-γ Tat(−) 24.3 ± 0.63 24.9 ± 0.26 3.3 0.08 1.9 0.18 < 1.0 0.60
Tat(+) 22.6 ± 0.46 24.0 ± 1.40
 TNF-α Tat(−) 45.1 ± 1.33 48.3 ± 1.58 < 1.0 0.87 2.9 0.11 < 1.0 0.68
Tat(+) 44.4 ± 1.47 49.9 ± 5.14
Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines
 IL-5 Tat(−) 2.2 ± 0.15 2.8 ± 0.09 1.7 0.20 26.0 < 0.01 < 1.0 0.99
Tat(+) 2.0 ± 0.08 2.7 ± 0.20
 IL-13 Tat(−) 36.9 ± 1.79 48.1 ± 0.99 3.4 0.08 39.6 < 0.01 < 1.0 0.54
Tat(+) 31.9 ± 0.93 45.7 ± 3.73
Chemokines
 CCL2 Tat(−) 42.2 ± 1.36 42.3 ± 1.08 13.6 < 0.01 < 1.0 0.60 < 1.0 0.60
Tat(+) 38.4 ± 1.01 37.1 ± 1.38
 CCL3 Tat(−) 8.3 ± 0.82 10.5 ± 1.08 < 1.0 0.66 3.2 0.09 < 1.0 0.45
Tat(+) 8.6 ± 0.63 9.5 ± 0.73
 CCL4 Tat(−) 48.8 ± 0.42 47.8 ± 0.84 18.4 < 0.01 3.4 0.08 < 1.0 0.61
Tat(+) 46.0 ± 0.93 44.2 ± 0.70
 CCL11 Tat(−) 99.9 ± 1.77 96.6 ± 1.24 2.2 0.15 1.3 0.27 < 1.0 0.85
Tat(+) 95.5 ± 3.53 91.0 ± 6.01
  1. Cytokine concentrations in the striatum of repeated (8-day) saline- or morphine-treated Tat(−) and Tat(+) mice. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM in pg/mL. Samples were loaded at 900 μg/mL total protein. Two-way ANOVAs for each CNS region were conducted with genotype and drug as between-subjects factors. F values and p values are presented from ANOVA results. Bolded values denote significant differences at α = 0.05; n = 5–6 mice per group. Additional cytokines and chemokines are represented in Figs. 5 and 6