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Table 4 Effects of Tat and morphine on cytokine concentrations in the spinal cord of Tat transgenic mice that are not presented in Figs. 5 and 6

From: Escalating morphine dosing in HIV-1 Tat transgenic mice with sustained Tat exposure reveals an allostatic shift in neuroinflammatory regulation accompanied by increased neuroprotective non-endocannabinoid lipid signaling molecules and amino acids

Spinal cord cytokines Genotype Repeated saline Repeated morphine Genotype effect Drug effect Genotype x drug
pg/mL   mean ± SEM mean ± SEM F1, 19 p F1, 19 p F1, 19 p
Proinflammatory cytokines
 IL-2 Tat(−) 12.5 ± 0.36 14.3 ± 0.47 2.3 0.15 16.9 < 0.01 < 1.0 0.98
Tat(+) 11.8 ± 0.44 13.6 ± 0.46
 IL-6 Tat(−) 3.4 ± 0.17 3.6 ± 0.19 1.5 0.24 1.5 0.23 < 1.0 0.79
Tat(+) 3.2 ± 0.13 3.4 ± 0.19
 IFN-γ Tat(−) 29.1 ± 0.76 30.3 ± 0.71 < 1.0 0.38 6.2 0.02 < 1.0 0.37
Tat(+) 27.8 ± 0.74 30.3 ± 0.76
 TNF-α Tat(−) 52.4 ± 1.70 51.8 ± 1.67 1.6 0.22 1.6 0.22 2.8 0.11
Tat(+) 47.8 ± 1.73 52.4 ± 0.48
Anti-inflammatory cytokines
 IL-5 Tat(−) 3.4 ± 0.22 3.4 ± 0.12 4.3 0.05 < 1.0 0.44 < 1.0 0.36
Tat(+) 3.2 ± 0.13 2.9 ± 0.11
 IL-13 Tat(−) 40.8 ± 3.86 41.6 ± 3.27 1.6 0.21 1.7 0.20 2.4 0.14
Tat(+) 41.7 ± 2.73 32.4 ± 2.63
Chemokines
 CCL2 Tat(−) 50.8 ± 1.13 57.7 ± 1.66 2.4 0.14 12.7 < 0.01 < 1.0 0.64
Tat(+) 48.9 ± 1.83 54.2 ± 2.24
 CCL3 Tat(−) 5.1 ± 0.14 5.3 ± 0.19 3.5 0.08 < 1.0 0.71 < 1.0 0.53
Tat(+) 4.8 ± 0.21 4.8 ± 0.21
 CCL4 Tat(−) 67.4 ± 1.27 74.5 ± 0.78 1.4 0.25 20.3 < 0.01 < 1.0 0.44
Tat(+) 66.9 ± 1.85 71.9 ± 1.18
 CCL11 Tat(−) 108.4 ± 5.37 100.4 ± 4.32 < 1.0 0.57 < 1.0 0.72 1.7 0.20
Tat(+) 99.3 ± 4.37 103.9 ± 5.01
  1. Cytokine concentrations in the spinal cord of repeated (8-day) saline- or morphine-treated Tat(−) and Tat(+) mice. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM in pg/mL. Samples were loaded at 500 μg/mL total protein. Two-way ANOVAs for each CNS region were conducted with genotype and drug as between-subjects factors. F values and p values are presented from ANOVA results. Bolded values denote significant differences at α = 0.05; n = 5–6 mice per group. Additional cytokines and chemokines are represented in Figs. 5 and 6