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Table 6 Effects of Tat and morphine on amino acid levels (pg/mg) in the striatum and spinal cord of Tat transgenic mice that were not significantly altered by Tat and/or morphine for any of the two CNS regions

From: Escalating morphine dosing in HIV-1 Tat transgenic mice with sustained Tat exposure reveals an allostatic shift in neuroinflammatory regulation accompanied by increased neuroprotective non-endocannabinoid lipid signaling molecules and amino acids

CNS Region Lipids Geno-type Repeated Saline Repeated Morphine Genotype Effect Drug Effect Genotype x Drug
  pg/mg   mean ± SEM mean ± SEM F1, 13 p F1, 13 p F1, 13 p
Striatum Arginine Tat(−) 68.5 ± 4.98 78.5 ± 8.12 < 1.0 0.81 3.3 0.09 < 1.0 0.81
Tat(+) 68.5 ± 4.26 76.1 ± 2.85
Aspartic Acid Tat(−) 2937.1 ± 147.50 2943.6 ± 323.69 < 1.0 0.83 < 1.0 0.80 < 1.0 0.78
Tat(+) 3049.2 ± 240.15 2927.9 ± 207.52
Glutamic Acid Tat(−) 9774.8 ± 373.58 9707.57 ± 964.41 < 1.0 0.80 < 1.0 0.66 < 1.0 0.58
Tat(+) 9605.3 ± 737.84 10,171.0 ± 259.75
Glycine Tat(−) 1276.5 ± 120.56 1375.7 ± 150.47 < 1.0 0.59 < 1.0 0.63 < 1.0 0.79
Tat(+) 1240.2 ± 162.27 1269.0 ± 81.91
Spinal Cord Arginine Tat(−) 60.4 ± 4.37 66.7 ± 16.23 1.5 0.24 2.9 0.11 < 1.0 0.40
Tat(+) 63.1 ± 1.99 82.3 ± 6.92
Aspartic Acid Tat(−) 3237.1 ± 134.52 3031.0 ± 742.06 < 1.0 0.64 < 1.0 0.90 < 1.0 0.47
Tat(+) 3148.3 ± 241.28 3442.9 ± 293.20
Glutamic Acid Tat(−) 6286.3 ± 403.32 5867.4 ± 1186.47 < 1.0 0.99 < 1.0 0.65 < 1.0 0.77
Tat(+) 6128.7 ± 252.56 6031.6 ± 418.03
Glycine Tat(−) 4221.2 ± 165.88 3868.8 ± 780.64 < 1.0 0.97 < 1.0 0.63 1.8 0.20
Tat(+) 3647.5 ± 367.56 4414.7 ± 405.38
  1. Levels of amino acids in the striatum and spinal cord of repeated (8-day) saline- or morphine-treated Tat(−) and Tat(+) mice were not significantly affected by Tat and/or morphine for any of the two CNS regions. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM in pg/mg. Two-way ANOVAs for each CNS region were conducted with genotype and drug as between-subjects factors. F values and p values are presented from ANOVA results. n = 3–5 mice per group. All significant effects are represented in Fig. 8