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Fig. 1 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 1

From: Inhibiting HMGB1-RAGE axis prevents pro-inflammatory macrophages/microglia polarization and affords neuroprotection after spinal cord injury

Fig. 1

HMGB1 Expression after SCI. a Temporal pattern of HMGB1 mRNA in spinal cord of sham-operated and SCI rats. Note that the mRNA level of HMGB1 was significantly increased from 3 to 21 dpi. Results were expressed as mean ± SEM of 3 rats, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01. b Immunohistochemistry of HMGB1. Note that all the cells around the epicenter were labeled with HMGB1-positive signal, with different intracellular localization (nuclear indicated by arrowheads, cytoplasmic indicated by thick arrows, and both cytoplasmic and nuclear indicated by thin arrows). Asterisks indicate the epicenter. Scale bar = 80 μm. cd Quantification of intracellular localization of HMGB1. About 60% of the HMGB1-positive cells were GFAP-positive. Note that percentage of cytoplasmic HMGB1 in GFAP-positive cells reached peak (67.0 ± 7.56%) at 7 dpi, and lowest percentage (10.2 ± 1.81%) of nuclear HMGB1 at 7 dpi. e Elevated HMGB1 serum levels in 4 rats 3 days after SCI compared with sham-operated controls, *P < 0.05

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