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Fig. 2 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 2

From: Inhibiting HMGB1-RAGE axis prevents pro-inflammatory macrophages/microglia polarization and affords neuroprotection after spinal cord injury

Fig. 2

HMGB1 increased the expression of pro-inflammatory markers in the microglia. The mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory markers of TNFα (a), iNOS (b), CD86 (c), and IL-12 (d) was significantly increased in microglia 24 h after recombinant HMGB1 treatment, except for no change of IL-18 (e). No significant changes in anti-inflammatory markers of Arg1, CD206, and IL-4 after HMGB1 treatment (fh), except for a decrease of IL-10 (i). Results are presented as mean ± SEM. N = 3, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001

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