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Fig. 5 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 5

From: Acute colitis during chronic experimental traumatic brain injury in mice induces dysautonomia and persistent extraintestinal, systemic, and CNS inflammation with exacerbated neurological deficits

Fig. 5

Deficits in spatial learning and memory are observed in Sham-injured mice subjected to intestinal inflammation. TBI and TBI + DSS mice required significantly more time to locate the hidden platform during acquisition training carried in the first DSS recovery week compared to Naïve/Sham and Naïve+DSS/Sham+DSS mice, respectively. No significant changes in escape latency were observed between these two groups. Sham+DSS mice exhibited increased escape latency compared to Sham counterparts, but this increase did not reach significance. No differences were observed in escape latencies for Naïve, Sham or Naïve+DSS mice a. Representative heat maps of time spent in the escape quadrant during probe trial b. TBI and TBI + DSS mice spent significantly less time in the escape quadrant during probe trial compared to Naïve/Sham and Naïve+DSS mice, respectively. No significant differences were found in the time spent in the target quadrant during probe trial between Naïve, Naïve+DSS, Sham and Sham+DSS mice c. Representative track plots of swim patterns during probe trial d. Assessment of search strategy employed during probe trial showed that Sham+DSS mice increasingly used the looping strategy, and decreasingly used the spatial strategy, compared Sham mice. Increased reliance on looping search strategies in Naïve+DSS and TBI + DSS mice compared to Naïve or TBI mice, respectively, did not reach significance e. Swim speeds were similar between all mice during probe trial f. Data expressed as mean ± s.e.m (n = 15–21/group). a AD1: * p < 0.05 vs Sham, ** p < 0.01 Naïve, ++++ p < 0.0001 vs Naïve+DSS; AD2:*** vs Naïve/Sham, ++ p < 0.01 vs Naïve+DSS; AD3; *** p < 0.001 vs Naïve+DSS, +p < 0.05 vs Naïve+DSS; AD4: 88 p < 0.01 vs Sham, *** p < 0.001 vs Naïve, ++++ p < 0.0001 vs Naïve+DSS. b * p < 0.05 vs Naïve, ** p < 0.01 vs Sham, ^ p < 0.05 vs Naïve+DSS

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