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Table 1 Rodent models in mood disorders and cognitive function research

From: The progress of gut microbiome research related to brain disorders

AnimalModel typePhenotype and effect (vs. controls)
NMRI miceGerm-freeIncreased motor activity and reduced anxiety [61]
Wistar ratApplication of probiotics:
Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175
Decreased stress-induced gastrointestinal discomfort and anxiolytic effect [118]
Balb/c miceApplication of probiotics:
Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1)
Increase of corticosterone, GABA receptor, N-acetyl aspartate and glutamate; reduced stress-induced corticosterone and anxiety- and depression-related behavior [119, 120]
Balb/c miceGerm-free, SPF and B. infantis miceGF mice exhibited exaggerated HPA stress response and decreased BDNF compared to SPF mice, but can be reversed with B. infantis [121]
Swiss Webster miceGerm-freeGF mice have a anxiolytic behavior, increased BDNF and reduced serotonin 1A receptor in dentate gyrus of the hippocampus [122]
Balb/c mice and AKH miceT. muris infection and application of probiotics B. longum NCC3001Infection with T. muris induced anxiety-like behavior and decreased level of BNDF. Treatment with B. longum reverses the effect and normalizes BDNF level [123]
Balb/c mice and NIH miceGerm-free and SPF with antibioticsIncreased exploratory behavior and hippocampal expression of BDNF in hippocampus [124]
Stress-sensitive F344 RatGerm-free and SPFDecreased social interaction in GF mice [125]
Swiss Webster miceGerm-freeSignificant social impairments and decreased social preference in GF mice [126]
Wistar ratApplication of antibioticReduced social interactions in offsprings when antibiotic is applied peri-conceptionally [127]
Swiss Webster miceGerm-freeIncreased exploratory in GF mice [122]
Swiss Webster miceApplication of antibioticIncreased exploratory behavior in antibiotic-treated mice [126]
C57BL/6 miceApplication of antibioticDecreased working memory in antibiotic-treated SPF mice; no effect on spatial memory [128]
Swiss Webster miceGerm-freeDecreased working memory in GF mice [129]
C57BL/6 miceSPFDecreased working memory in antibiotic-treated SPF mice [130]
C57BL/6 mice and CF1 miceCitrobacter rodentidum infectionIncrease anxiety and memory dysfunction [129, 131]