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Table 2 Child characteristics

From: Immune network dysregulation associated with child neurodevelopmental delay: modulatory role of prenatal alcohol exposure

VariableC/TD (n = 15)C/ND (n = 12)A/TD (n = 15)A/ND (n = 17)p value
Age at blood draw (years)3.68 ± 0.203.61 ± 0.233.14 ± 0.293.60 ± 0.210.2381
Child sexMale46.7% (7)58.3% (7)53.3% (8)58.8% (10)0.9023
Female53.3% (8)41.7% (5)46.7% (7)41.2% (7)
Height < 10th percentileNo100.0% (15)83.3% (10)78.6% (11)56.3% (9)0.0192
Yes0.0% (0)16.7% (2)21.4% (3)43.8% (7)
Weight < 10th percentileNo93.3% (14)83.3% (10)78.6% (11)50.0% (8)0.0452
Yes6.7% (1)16.7% (2)21.4% (3)50.0% (8)
Occipital-frontal circumference < 10th percentileNo100.0% (15)91.7% (11)85.7% (12)62.5% (10)0.0292
Yes0.0% (0)8.3% (1)14.3% (2)37.5% (6)
Smooth philtrumNo86.7% (13)66.7% (8)85.7% (12)56.3% (9)0.1742
Yes13.3% (2)33.3% (4)14.3% (2)43.8% (7)
Thin vermilion borderNo86.7% (13)75.0% (9)92.9% (13)62.5% (10)0.2672
Yes13.3% (2)25.0% (3)7.1% (1)37.5% (6)
Palpebral fissure length < 10th percentileNo100.0% (15)91.7% (11)92.9% (13)68.8% (11)0.0522
Yes0.0% (0)8.3% (1)7.1% (1)31.3% (5)
Age at 1st exam (years)0.56 ± 0.010.51 ± 0.020.55 ± 0.020.56 ± 0.200.0591
Mental development index (1st exam)91.67 ± 0.8782.08 ± 3.4091.87 ± 0.98⦿80.87 ± 2.05❋,✦< 0.0011
Psychomotor development index (1st exam)92.00 ± 2.1381.92 ± 2.7588.40 ± 2.1980.47 ± 3.28< 0.0071
Age at 2nd exam (years)1.05 ± 0.020.99 ± 0.011.05 ± 0.021.02 ± 0.010.0841
Mental development index (2nd exam)94.93 ± 2.7784.55 ± 2.3696.93 ± 2.06⦿76.63 ± 2.06❋,✦< 0.0011
Psychomotor development index (2nd exam)107.36 ± 3.292.45 ± 3.95102.43 ± 2.6083.81 ± 3.60❋,✦< 0.0011
  1. Abbreviations: C/TD control mother (low to no alcohol), typically developing child; C/ND control mother (low to no alcohol), neurodevelopmental delay in the child; A/TD alcohol-consuming mother, typically developing child; A/ND alcohol-consuming mother, neurodevelopmental delay in the child. Continuous variables are reported as average value ± standard error. Categorical variables are reported as percentage of group followed by the N in parentheses. For both the A/TD and A/ND groups, one subject did not complete the dysmorphology exam. For the neurodevelopmental assessments, two subjects from the A/ND group did not complete the 6-month assessment and one subject from each group did not complete the 12-month assessment, with no subjects failing to complete the assessment at both time points. 1Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. 2Fisher’s exact test. 3Chi-square test. p values in italics are statistically significant; post hoc testing—< C/TD; ⦿> C/ND; < A/TD