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Fig. 4 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 4

From: Aberrant regulation of retinoic acid signaling genes in cerebral arterio venous malformation nidus and neighboring astrocytes

Fig. 4

Triple immunofluorescence staining analysis for GFAP, Vimentin, and ALDH1A2 in cerebral AVM and control tissues. a Triple immunofluorescence staining with GFAP (blue), Vimentin (green) and ALDH1A2 (red) with cerebral AVM nidus. The immunofluorescence staining with GFAP, Vimentin, and ALDH1A2 reveals high expression of these proteins in astrocytes surrounding the AVM vessel. The GFAP + ALDH1A2 + Vimentin immunofluorescence staining demonstrates the co-localized expression of these three proteins in AVM-associated astrocytes. b Triple immunofluorescence staining with GFAP (blue), Vimentin (green), and ALDH1A2 (red) in control tissue, which reveals the minimal expression of ALDH1A2. The images were collected using × 60 magnification (scale bar, 10 μm). c The bar plot represents the mean fluorescent intensity analysis of GFAP, Vimentin and ALDH1A2 in AVM and control vessel. There is a significantly increased expression of all these proteins in AVM tissue compared to control (*P < 0.05), AVM (n = 10) and control (n = 10)

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