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Table 2 Serum cytokines analysis at 24 h post-LPS

From: A systemic immune challenge to model hospital-acquired infections independently regulates immune responses after pediatric traumatic brain injury

Protein (pg/ml) IL-6 TNF-a GM-CSF CCL2 IL-10
Sham + saline 13.0 ± 2.37 12.03 ± 0.58 4.43 ± 2.57 87.51 ± 16.80 1.09 ± 0.55
Sham + LPS 6.65 ± 2.78 6.09 ± 2.69 0.46 ± 0.27 931.11 ± 209.88 3.61 ± 1.14
TBI + saline 11.84 ± 1.98 7.87 ± 2.05 5.43 ± 2.02 62.08 ± 24.47 0.60 ± 0.34
TBI + LPS 4.29 ± 1.99 4.69 ± 2.36 1.77 ± 1.51 704.29 ± 177.38 5.04 ± 2.08
Effect of injury p = 0.507 p = 0.252 p = 0.559 p = 0.444 p = 0.738
Effect of LPS *p = 0.015 p = 0.068 p = 0.066 ***p < 0.001 *p = 0.021
Interaction injury × treatment p = 0.819 p = 0.568 p = 0.938 p = 0.540 p = 0.370
  1. Inflammatory cytokines were quantified at 24 h post-LPS by multiplex assay. A significant effect of LPS was noted for IL-6, CCL2, and IL-10, whereas non-significant trends were observed for TNF-α and GM-CSF. However, none of these cytokines were altered in response to TBI at this time point. *p ≤ 0.05, ***p ≤ 0.001 indicates main effect of LPS from two-way ANOVA; n = 5–6/group