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Table 1 Cytokine and chemokine levels in the brain of mice infected with Zika virus

From: Microglia are involved in phagocytosis and extracellular digestion during Zika virus encephalitis in young adult immunodeficient mice

Cytokines/chemokines Amounts (mean ± SEM) in pg/mL
Day 0 Day 3 post-infection Day 7 post-infection Day 10 post-infection
IL-1α 4.28 ± 0.34 3.93 ± 0.47 10.44 ± 2.44* 8.24 ± 1.13
IL-1β 0.94 ± 0.02 0.97 ± 0.03 1.29 ± 0.20 1.08 ± 0.06
IL-2 3.20 ± 0.25 3.20 ± 0.40 4.36 ± 0.68 3.65 ± 0.21
IL-3 0.12 ± 0.08 0.34 ± 0.16 0.46 ± 0.17 0.21 ± 0.10
IL-5 0.75 ± 0.12 1.21 ± 0.20 1.42 ± 0.31 0.99 ± 0.13
IL-6 0.95 ± 0.03 1.20 ± 0.13 10.65 ± 4.02* 1.54 ± 0.26
IL-9 5.55 ± 0.04 4.77 ± 0.36 8.50 ± 0.94** 4.92 ± 0.49
IL-10 2.37 ± 0.98 3.05 ± 1.44 19.10 ± 6.40* 13.78 ± 3.65
IL-12p40 138.91 ± 8.62 134.58 ± 14.62 2307.21 ± 1072.27 2223.27 ± 637.44
IL-12p70 42.19 ± 3.09 60.26 ± 4.92 81.10 ± 11.42** 43.06 ± 4.01
IL-13 109.35 ± 5.43 127.71 ± 10.94 124.58 ± 8.20 108.49 ± 5.62
IL-17A 2.29 ± 0.18 2.15 ± 0.30 2.76 ± 0.41 2.61 ± 0.24
G-CSF 4.64 ± 1.55 2.30 ± 0.82 264.34 ± 138.48 19.88 ± 8.10
IFN-γ 6.51 ± 0.76 6.73 ± 0.75 14.62 ± 3.37* 8.46 ± 0.86
TNF-α 57.43 ± 12.71 42.86 ± 3.50 102.20 ± 30.40 34.76 ± 1.79
CCL2 87.61 ± 3.78 79.74 ± 3.85 934.59 ± 387.08* 284.89 ± 62.11
CCL3 10.72 ± 0.30 12.57 ± 0.32 130.09 ± 58.52* 59.93 ± 15.94
CCL4 4.09 ± 0.42 4.65 ± 0.36 9.28 ± 2.00* 7.13 ± 1.72
CCL5 ND ND 277.48 ± 102.87 567.68 ± 180.00**
CCL11 44.91 ± 3.26 44.24 ± 3.28 180.29 ± 39.51*** 82.63 ± 9.50
CXCL1 15.79 ± 1.10 12.43 ± 0.81 51.12 ± 15.74* 26.66 ± 3.40
  1. ND, not detected; SEM, standard error of the mean
  2. Results are the mean ± SEM of 5–6 mice per time point
  3. Statistical analyses were performed using a one-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s multiple comparison test. Results that are statistically different compared to day 0 (noninfected mice) are presented as follows: * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001 and are indicated in bold