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Table 2 Therapeutic options for NMOSD-related relapses

From: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: from pathophysiology to therapeutic strategies

Drug Study design Study phase / ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier(status 01/2021) Number of patients (randomization) NMOSD serostatus Follow-up Disability (EDSS stabilization or improvement) Safety concerns
Bevacizumab Single-center, Open Label Trial (USA) Phase 1 add-on therapy (completed)
NCT01777412
10 AQP4-ab + (n = 6) and – (n = 4) 91 days after admission at baseline: 3.5 (2–7)
at FU: 3 (1.75–6.5)
UTI that required hospitalization and improved with specific Tx
Ublituximab Single-center, Open Label Trial (USA) Phase 1 add-on therapy (completed)
NCT02276963
6 (5 completed the study) AQP4-ab + 90 days after admission at baseline: 6.5 (5.25-7.5)
at FU (n = 3): 4 (2–8)
Leukopenia (n = 1)
headache and body ache (n = 3)
NPB-01 Single-center, Open Label Trial (Japan) Phase 2 add-on therapy (completed)
NCT01845584
7 AQP4-ab + Time frame: 29 days NA NA
HBM 9161 Non-randomized, open label, dose exploration study (China) Phase 3 study
(Active, recruiting)
NCT04227470
12 (estimated enrollment) AQP4-ab + Time frame: 189 days NA NA
Immunoadsorption or Plasma Exchange Prospective, Multicenter, Single-blind, Randomized study (China) Phase 2 study (not yet recruiting)
NCT04064944
144 (estimated enrollment) AQP4-ab + Time frame: 4 weeks after the last treatment NA NA
  1. FU follow-up, NA not available, USA United States of America, AQP4-ab + aquaporin-4 antibodies positive, NMOSD neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, EDSS Expanded disability Status Scale, UTI urinary tract infection