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Fig. 2 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 2

From: Molecular mimicry of NMDA receptors may contribute to neuropsychiatric symptoms in severe COVID-19 cases

Fig. 2

Annotation: This schematic illustration does not correspond to the natural size proportions

Possible pathophysiology of anti-NMDAR encephalitis induced by SARS-CoV-2. During acute COVID-19 infection, viral particles, including NSP8 and NSP9, are released. The released proteins are recognized by T cells, leading to activation of B cells, which become plasma cells and produce IgM and later IgG antibodies against NSP8 and NSP9. I SARS-CoV-2-associated endothelitis and IL-17 produced by activated T cells disrupt the blood–brain barrier, allowing NMDAR antibodies to enter the CNS. IL-6 alters glial activity and initiates neutrophil granulocyte migration leading to further blood-brain barrier destruction and inflammation. II Due to molecular mimicry, antibodies produced by plasma cells in the CNS can cross-react with the NMDAR subunits GluN1, leading to receptor internalization with subsequent degradation.

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