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Table 1 Features and demographic of CCM patients and healthy subjects

From: Elevated proportion of TLR2- and TLR4-expressing Th17-like cells and activated memory B cells was associated with clinical activity of cerebral cavernous malformations

Characteristics CCM patients Health non-CCM subjects
Symptomatic Asymptomatic
Bleeding Epilepsy   
Sample size, N (%) 20 (55%) 3 (8%)a 14 (37%) 20
Age, years (mean) 44 38 48 40.1
Female, N (%) 12 (60%) 3 (100%) 10 (71%) 10 (50%)
Sporadic, N (%) 17 (85%) 3 (100%) 7 (50%) NAc
Familiar, N (%) 3 (15%) 0 7 (50%) NA
DVA, N (%)b 8 (40%) 1 (33%) 3 (21%) NA
Ethnicity
 Caucasian. N (%) 18 (88%) 2 (66%) 9 (66%) 14 (70%)
 African-Brazilian, N (%) 2 (12%) 1 (34%) 5 (34%) 6 (30%)
  1. aTwo from three patients with epilepsy were using Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal) to control seizure crises. The subjects, patients and healthy individuals recruited, were not taking any medication at the time of blood sampling. bDevelopmental venous anomaly. cNot applicable