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Table 1 Cytokines in children with TBI versus controls

From: Mild-to-severe traumatic brain injury in children: altered cytokines reflect severity

Cytokine Controls Mild TBI sTBI p value* p value **
IL-2 0.06 (0.75–2.80) 0.06 (0.86–1.34) 0.87 (0.87–0.87) 0.98 0.47
IL-4 0.80 (1.74–2.34) 0.69 (1.68–2.06) 1.72 (1.72–1.72) 0.34 0.66
IL-6 2.74 (2.19–3.28) 6.58 (4.71–8.45) 57.51 (19.32–95.70) 0.005  < 0.0001
IL-8 70.69 (61.19–80.18) 26.9 (21.02–32.97) 102.2 (3.70–200.8)  < 0.0001 0.38
IL-10 4.65 (3.72–5.58) 3.32 (1.59–5.05) 3.75 (1.09–6.41)  < 0.0001 0.72
IL-17A 14.98 (8.02–21.93) 1.48 (1.14–1.82) 1.39 (0.78–1.99)  < 0.0001 0.42
TNF-α 15.73 (13.51–17.95) 6.65 (5.14–8.15) 15.29 (2.33–28.24)  < 0.0001 0.82
IFN-γ 107.9 (75.63–140.1) 203.2 (-49.95–456.4) 17.55 (17.55–17.55)  < 0.0001 0.01
  1. The mean, with upper and lower 95% Confidence Interval of the mean and p-values of cytokine levels (pg/ml) in plasma of children with mild Traumatic brain injury (n = 110) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 6) versus controls (n = 98). Cytokine values in bold denote p < 0.05. *p value: comparing controls to mTBI; ** p value: comparing sTBI to mTBI