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Fig. 2 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 2

From: Vagus nerve stimulation modulates hippocampal inflammation caused by continuous stress in rats

Fig. 2

Hippocampal induction of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in CS animals is downregulated by aVNS. Western blot analysis of hippocampal IL-1β (A), IL-6 (B) and TNF-α (C) proteins in male rats and of the same proteins in female rats (DF). Images in (AF) are the representatives from four independent experiments (upper panels). Quantification of band intensity of each protein relative to actin is plotted (lower panels). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 (One-way ANOVA). G Immunofluorescence images of IL-1β signals (red) in the granule cell layer (GCL) of the dentate gyrus (DG), CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cell layers. The nuclei of neurons were visualized by staining with Hoechst 33258 (blue)

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