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Fig. 8 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 8

From: Vagus nerve stimulation modulates hippocampal inflammation caused by continuous stress in rats

Fig. 8

Regulation of gastric and hippocampal inflammation by cVNS is related to behavioral effects. Rats were subjected to CS (5 days) and subsequently cVNS (7 days), and 24 h after the last VNS, CS+cVNS group, along with CS+Sham and CTL groups, were used for von Frey test (G) and forced swimming test (H). Animals were then sacrificed and protein was extracted from the gastric tissue (AC) and the hippocampus (DF) for Western blot analysis. AF Western blot analysis. Upper images are the representatives of four independent experiments for IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 proteins in the gastric tissue (AC) and in the hippocampal tissue (DF). Quantification of protein band intensity relative to actin is plotted in lower panels. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 (One-way ANOVA). G Von Frey hair test. Values of withdrawal threshold to stimulations on the left hind limbs were measured 40 times and averaged for individual animals. H Forced swimming test. Duration of immobility and swimming were analyzed for 5 min period for individual animals. In G and H, mean behavioral data collected from four different animals were compared among experimental groups. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 (One-way ANOVA)

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