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Fig. 1 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 1

From: TNFα-mediated necroptosis in brain endothelial cells as a potential mechanism of increased seizure susceptibility in mice following systemic inflammation

Fig. 1

Increased susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizures in mice following LPS-induced systemic inflammation. A The experimental protocol. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with vehicle (normal saline) or 4 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Three days later, seizure susceptibility to kainic acid (KA) administered intraperitoneally was evaluated. B The mortality rate of mice within 3 days after LPS or vehicle injection. C Seizure susceptibility of these mice was scored once every 5 min over the 2-h period following injection with 3 or 20 mg/kg KA (n = 13 mice per group). Using two-way repeated measures ANOVA analysis, the Bonferroni post hoc analysis revealed a significant difference between the 3-mg/kg-KA-saline-treated group and 20-mg/kg-KA-saline-treated group and between the 20-mg/kg-KA-saline-treated group and 3-mg/kg-KA- and LPS-treated groups. D The latency to initial seizure onset of stage 4 (i.e., tonic with or without clonic convulsion) or more after KA injection. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. Student’s t-test; *p < 0.05. E The total duration (min) of seizure behavior of stage 4 or more. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. Student’s t-test; 3-mg/kg-KA- and LPS-treated group vs. 20-mg/kg-KA- and saline-treated group; *p < 0.05

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