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Table 2 Risk prediction of four potential biomarkers for PD patients in discovery and validation group

From: Parkinson's disease peripheral immune biomarker profile: a multicentre, cross-sectional and longitudinal study

Biomarkers Discovery Validation Combined-analysis
OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value
CXCL12 9 (4.3–18.7) 4.5 × 10–9 2.3 (1.1–4.6) 0.02 3.8 (2.4–6.2) 4.7 × 10–8
CX3CL1 3.1 (1.6–6.0) 7.8 × 10–4 2.8 (1.4–5.4) 2.4 × 10–3 2.9 (1.7–4.9) 1.5 × 10–4
IL-8 19.0 (8.2–44.3) 7.6 × 10–12 57.0 (18.5–174.7) 1.9 × 10–12 26.9 (12.9–56.4) 2.3 × 10–18
CCL15 0.3 (0.2–0.7) 4.7 × 10–3 0.5 (0.2–1.0) 0.045 0.4 (0.3–0.7) 0.001
  1. p value was adjusted for age, gender and site under logistic regression analysis model
  2. The bold emphasis in the table means p < 0.05
  3. OR odds ratio, 95% CI 95% confidence interval