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  1. The striato-nigral projecting pathway contains the highest concentrations of dynorphin in the brain. The functional role of this opioid peptide in the regulation of mesencephalic dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons...

    Authors: Qingshan Wang, Eun-Joo Shin, Xuan-Khanh Thi Nguyen, Quan Li, Jae-Hyung Bach, Guoying Bing, Won-Ki Kim, Hyoung-Chun Kim and Jau-Shyong Hong

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:124

    Content type: Research

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  2. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are finding increased use in therapeutics and imaging. However, their toxic effects still remain to be elucidated. Therefore this study was undertaken to study the biochemical effect...

    Authors: Nikhat J Siddiqi, Mohamed Anwar K Abdelhalim, Afaf K El-Ansary, Abdullah S Alhomida and W Y Ong

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:123

    Content type: Research

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  3. A variety of methods have been used to study inflammatory changes in the acutely injured spinal cord. Recently novel multiplex assays have been used in an attempt to overcome limitations in numbers of availabl...

    Authors: Matthew Light, Kenneth H Minor, Peter DeWitt, Kyle H Jasper and Stephen JA Davies

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:122

    Content type: Research

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  4. Nogo-A is a member of the reticulon family of membrane-associated proteins and plays an important role in axonal remodeling. The present study aimed to investigate alterations in Nogo-A expression following tr...

    Authors: Po-Kuan Chao, Kwok-Tung Lu, Ji-Yi Jhu, Yu-Yuan Peter Wo, Tai-Chun Huang, Long-Sun Ro and Yi-Ling Yang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:121

    Content type: Research

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  5. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by damage to the neuronal myelin sheath. One of the key effectors for inflammatory injury is the antigen-prese...

    Authors: Hilit Levy-Barazany and Dan Frenkel

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:120

    Content type: Research

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  6. The myelin sheath provides electrical insulation of mechanosensory Aβ-afferent fibers. Myelin-degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) damage the myelin sheath. The resulting electrical instability of Aβ-fib...

    Authors: Huaqing Liu, Sergey A Shiryaev, Andrei V Chernov, Youngsoon Kim, Igor Shubayev, Albert G Remacle, Svetlana Baranovskaya, Vladislav S Golubkov, Alex Y Strongin and Veronica I Shubayev

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:119

    Content type: Research

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  7. Correction to Dirscherl K, Karlstetter M, Ebert S, Kraus D, Hlawatsch J, Walczak Y, Moehle C, Fuchshofer R, Langmann T. Luteolin triggers global changes in the microglial transcriptome leading to a unique anti...

    Authors: Konstantin Dirscherl, Marcus Karlstetter, Stefanie Ebert, Dominik Kraus, Julia Hlawatsch, Yana Walczak, Christoph Moehle, Rudolf Fuchshofer and Thomas Langmann

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:118

    Content type: Erratum

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    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:3

  8. There is increasing interest in astrocyte biology because astrocytes have been demonstrated to play prominent roles in physiological and pathological conditions of the central nervous system, including neuroin...

    Authors: Hiromi Kumamaru, Hirokazu Saiwai, Kazu Kobayakawa, Kensuke Kubota, Nico van Rooijen, Kazuhide Inoue, Yukihide Iwamoto and Seiji Okada

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:116

    Content type: Research

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  9. For successful translation to clinical stroke studies, the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Round Table criteria have been proposed. Two important criteria are testing of therapeutic interventions in conscious...

    Authors: Deborah De Geyter, Wendy Stoop, Tine Zgavc, Sophie Sarre, Yvette Michotte, Jacques De Keyser and Ron Kooijman

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:114

    Content type: Research

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  10. Increasing evidence shows that the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) possesses potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. It is tempting to evaluate the potent...

    Authors: Sadayuki Hashioka, Andis Klegeris and Patrick L McGeer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:113

    Content type: Research

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  11. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). In the murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS, T regulatory (Treg) cell therapy has proved to b...

    Authors: Moa Fransson, Elena Piras, Joachim Burman, Berith Nilsson, Magnus Essand, BinFeng Lu, Robert A Harris, Peetra U Magnusson, Eva Brittebo and Angelica SI Loskog

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:112

    Content type: Research

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  12. WNT-5A signaling in the central nervous system is important for morphogenesis, neurogenesis and establishment of functional connectivity; the source of WNT-5A and its importance for cellular communication in t...

    Authors: Carina Halleskog, Jacomijn Petronella Dijksterhuis, Michaela Brita Christina Kilander, Javier Becerril-Ortega, Juan Carlos Villaescusa, Eva Lindgren, Ernest Arenas and Gunnar Schulte

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:111

    Content type: Research

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  13. The primary olfactory pathway is a potential route through which microorganisms from the periphery could potentially access the central nervous system. Our previous studies demonstrated that if the olfactory e...

    Authors: Rosalind P Herbert, Julie Harris, Kim Pei Chong, Jamie Chapman, Adrian K West and Meng Inn Chuah

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:109

    Content type: Research

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  14. Prokineticin 2 (PK2) is a secreted protein and causes potent hyperalgesia in vivo, and is therefore considered to be a new pronociceptive mediator. However, the molecular targets responsible for the pronocicep...

    Authors: Chun-Yu Qiu, Yu-Qiang Liu, Fang Qiu, Jiliang Wu, Qun-Yong Zhou and Wang-Ping Hu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:108

    Content type: Research

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  15. The interaction between the membrane glycoprotein, CD200 and its cognate receptor CD200 receptor (CD200R), has been shown to play a role in maintaining microglia in a quiescent state. There is evidence of incr...

    Authors: Anthony Lyons, Eric J Downer, Derek A Costello, Niamh Murphy and Marina A Lynch

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:107

    Content type: Research

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  16. Neuroinflammation is associated with virtually all major neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although it remains unclear whether neuroinflammation is the driving force behind these...

    Authors: David Tweedie, Ryan A Ferguson, Kelly Fishman, Kathryn A Frankola, Henriette Van Praag, Harold W Holloway, Weiming Luo, Yazhou Li, Luca Caracciolo, Isabella Russo, Sergio Barlati, Balmiki Ray, Debomoy K Lahiri, Francesca Bosetti, Nigel H Greig and Susanna Rosi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:106

    Content type: Research

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  17. Human intravenous immunoglobulin (hIVIG) preparation is indicated for treating primary immunodeficiency disorders associated with impaired humoral immunity. hIVIG is known for its anti-inflammatory properties ...

    Authors: Lakshman Puli, Yuriy Pomeshchik, Katja Olas, Tarja Malm, Jari Koistinaho and Heikki Tanila

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:105

    Content type: Research

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  18. The interplay between IFN-γ, IL-17 and neutrophils during CNS inflammatory disease is complex due to cross-regulatory factors affecting both positive and negative feedback loops. These interactions have hinder...

    Authors: Carine Savarin, Stephen A Stohlman, David R Hinton, Richard M Ransohoff, Daniel J Cua and Cornelia C Bergmann

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:104

    Content type: Research

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  19. Blockade of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors ameliorates brain inflammation, and reduces excessive brain interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) production and release from cortical microglia. The aim of this study was t...

    Authors: Tao Pang, Juan Wang, Julius Benicky, Enrique Sánchez-Lemus and Juan M Saavedra

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:102

    Content type: Research

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  20. Systemic inflammation might cause neuronal damage and sustain neurodegenerative diseases and behavior impairment, with the participation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and in...

    Authors: Paola Bossù, Debora Cutuli, Ilaria Palladino, Paola Caporali, Francesco Angelucci, Daniela Laricchiuta, Francesca Gelfo, Paola De Bartolo, Carlo Caltagirone and Laura Petrosini

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:101

    Content type: Research

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  21. Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes acute neuronal death followed by delayed secondary neuronal damage. However, little is known about how microenvironment regulating cells such as microglia, astrocytes,...

    Authors: Kyoung-Jin Min, Hey-Kyeong Jeong, Beomsue Kim, Dong Hoon Hwang, Hae Young Shin, An Tran Nguyen, Jong-hyeon Kim, Ilo Jou, Byung G Kim and Eun-hye Joe

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:100

    Content type: Research

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  22. Chronic neuroinflammation is an important component of Alzheimer’s disease and could contribute to neuronal dysfunction, injury and loss that lead to disease progression. Multiple clinical studies implicate tu...

    Authors: S Prasad Gabbita, Minu K Srivastava, Pirooz Eslami, Ming F Johnson, Naomi K Kobritz, David Tweedie, Nigel H Greig, Frank P Zemlan, Sherven P Sharma and Marni E Harris-White

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:99

    Content type: Research

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  23. Although evidence suggests that the prevalence of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is lower in smokers than in non-smokers, the mechanisms of nicotine-induced neuroprotection remain unclear. Stimulation of the α7 nico...

    Authors: Yuan Liu, Jun Hu, Jie Wu, Chenlei Zhu, Yujian Hui, Yaping Han, Zuhu Huang, Kevin Ellsworth and Weimin Fan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:98

    Content type: Research

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  24. Chronic alcohol use changes the brain’s inflammatory state. However, there is little work examining the progression of the cytokine response during alcohol withdrawal, a period of profound autonomic and emotio...

    Authors: Kate Freeman, Anthony Brureau, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Mary M Staehle, Melanie M Brureau, Gregory E Gonye, Jan B Hoek, D Craig Hooper and James S Schwaber

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:97

    Content type: Research

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  25. Cathepsin C (Cat C) functions as a central coordinator for activation of many serine proteases in inflammatory cells. It has been recognized that Cat C is responsible for neutrophil recruitment and production ...

    Authors: Kai Fan, Xuefei Wu, Bin Fan, Ning Li, Yongzhong Lin, Yiwen Yao and Jianmei Ma

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:96

    Content type: Research

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  26. Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections can result in CNS abnormalities in newborn babies including vision loss, mental retardation, motor deficits, seizures, and hearing loss. Brain pericytes play ...

    Authors: Donald J Alcendor, Ashley M Charest, Wen Qin Zhu, Hollie E Vigil and Susan M Knobel

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:95

    Content type: Research

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  27. The chemokines and cytokines CXCL13, CXCL12, CCL19, CCL21, BAFF and APRIL are believed to play a role in the recruitment of B cells to the central nervous system (CNS) compartment during neuroinflammation. To ...

    Authors: Markus C Kowarik, Sabine Cepok, Johann Sellner, Verena Grummel, Martin S Weber, Thomas Korn, Achim Berthele and Bernhard Hemmer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:93

    Content type: Research

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  28. Ocular hypertension is a major risk factor for glaucoma, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by an irreversible decrease in ganglion cells and their axons. Macroglial and microglial cells appear to play ...

    Authors: Beatriz I Gallego, Juan J Salazar, Rosa de Hoz, Blanca Rojas, Ana I Ramírez, Manuel Salinas-Navarro, Arturo Ortín-Martínez, Francisco J Valiente-Soriano, Marcelino Avilés-Trigueros, Maria P Villegas-Perez, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Alberto Triviño and Jose M Ramírez

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:92

    Content type: Research

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  29. Sleepiness and cognitive dysfunction are recognized as prominent consequences of sleep deprivation. Experimentally induced short-term sleep fragmentation, even in the absence of any reductions in total sleep d...

    Authors: Vijay Ramesh, Deepti Nair, Shelley X L Zhang, Fahed Hakim, Navita Kaushal, Foaz Kayali, Yang Wang, Richard C Li, Alba Carreras and David Gozal

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:91

    Content type: Research

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  30. Histamine is commonly acknowledged as an inflammatory mediator in peripheral tissues, leaving its role in brain immune responses scarcely studied. Therefore, our aim was to uncover the cellular and molecular m...

    Authors: Raquel Ferreira, Tiago Santos, Joana Gonçalves, Graça Baltazar, Lino Ferreira, Fabienne Agasse and Liliana Bernardino

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:90

    Content type: Research

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  31. Immunosuppressants such as mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) have the capacity to inhibit microglial and astrocytic activation and to reduce the extent of cell death after neuronal injury. This study was designed to...

    Authors: Fahim Ebrahimi, Marco Koch, Philipp Pieroh, Chalid Ghadban, Constance Hobusch, Ingo Bechmann and Faramarz Dehghani

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:89

    Content type: Research

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  32. The histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression in the central nervous system (CNS) regulates synaptic plasticity events during development and adult life. Its upregulation may be associated with event...

    Authors: Sheila CS Victório, Luciana P Cartarozzi, Rafaela CR Hell and Alexandre LR Oliveira

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:88

    Content type: Research

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  33. Neuroinflammation and protein accumulation are characteristic hallmarks of both normal aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relationship between these factors in neurodegenerative pro...

    Authors: Cristina Pintado, María P Gavilán, Elena Gavilán, Luisa García-Cuervo, Antonia Gutiérrez, Javier Vitorica, Angélica Castaño, Rosa M Ríos and Diego Ruano

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:87

    Content type: Research

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  34. Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been linked with exposure to a variety of environmental and immunological insults (for example, infectious pathogens) in which inflammatory and oxidative processes seem to be invol...

    Authors: Jessica Bobyn, Emily N Mangano, Anusha Gandhi, Eric Nelson, Kerry Moloney, Melanie Clarke and Shawn Hayley

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:86

    Content type: Research

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  35. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by varying degrees of dysfunctional social abilities, learning deficits, and stereotypic behaviors. Many patients with ASDs have ...

    Authors: Shahrzad Asadi and Theoharis C Theoharides

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:85

    Content type: Research

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  36. Immunization against beta-amyloid (Aβ) is a promising approach for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, but the optimal timing for the vaccination remains to be determined. Preventive immunization approaches ...

    Authors: Julia Kofler, Brian Lopresti, Chris Janssen, Anita M Trichel, Eliezer Masliah, Olivera J Finn, Russell D Salter, Geoffrey H Murdoch, Chester A Mathis and Clayton A Wiley

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:84

    Content type: Research

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  37. Maternal viral infection during pregnancy is associated with an increase in the incidence of psychiatric disorders with presumed neurodevelopmental origin, including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia...

    Authors: Géraldine Arrode-Brusés and Juan L Brusés

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:83

    Content type: Research

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  38. The mechanisms of progressive dopaminergic neuronal loss in Parkinson’s disease (PD) remain poorly understood, largely due to the complex etiology and multifactorial nature of disease pathogenesis. Several lin...

    Authors: Richard Gordon, Vellareddy Anantharam, Anumantha G Kanthasamy and Arthi Kanthasamy

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:82

    Content type: Research

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  39. Statins such as simvastatin are inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase used in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In addition to their cholesterol-lowering activities, s...

    Authors: Emanuela Esposito, Barbara Rinaldi, Emanuela Mazzon, Maria Donniacuo, Daniela Impellizzeri, Irene Paterniti, Annalisa Capuano, Placido Bramanti and Salvatore Cuzzocrea

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:81

    Content type: Research

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  40. In multiple sclerosis relapses refractory to intravenous corticosteroid therapy, plasma exchange is recommended. Immunoadsorption (IA) is regarded as an alternative therapy, but its efficacy and putative mecha...

    Authors: Michael J Koziolek, Desiree Tampe, Matthias Bähr, Hassan Dihazi, Klaus Jung, Dirk Fitzner, Reinhard Klingel, Gerhard A Müller and Bernd Kitze

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:80

    Content type: Research

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  41. Several factors contribute to the deterioration in synaptic plasticity which accompanies age and one of these is neuroinflammation. This is characterized by increased microglial activation associated with incr...

    Authors: Niamh Murphy, Thelma R Cowley, Christoph W Blau, Colin N Dempsey, Janis Noonan, Aoife Gowran, Riffat Tanveer, Weredeselam M Olango, David P Finn, Veronica A Campbell and Marina A Lynch

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:79

    Content type: Research

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  42. Cerebral ischemia is associated with the activation of glial cells, infiltration of leukocytes and an increase in inflammatory mediators in the ischemic brain and systemic circulation. How this inflammatory re...

    Authors: Corinne Benakis, Anne Vaslin, Christian Pasquali and Lorenz Hirt

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:76

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  43. Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal disease-associated prion protein, PrPSc. In prion-infected brains, activated microglia are often present in the vici...

    Authors: Fushan Shi, Lifeng Yang, Mohammed Kouadir, Yang Yang, Jihong Wang, Xiangmei Zhou, Xiaomin Yin and Deming Zhao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:73

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Inflammation caused by the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi is an important factor in the pathogenesis of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Our central hypothesis is that B. burgdorferi can cause disease via the induc...

    Authors: Geeta Ramesh, Shemi Benge, Bapi Pahar and Mario T Philipp

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:72

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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