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  1. By neutralizing the effect of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) play a critical role in maintaining tissue proteolysis in balance. As the major re...

    Authors: Jennifer V Welser-Alves, Stephen J Crocker and Richard Milner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:61

    Content type: Research

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  2. Stroke is an important cause of morbidity and mortality and few therapies exist thus far. Mild hypothermia (33°C) is a promising neuroprotective strategy to improve outcome after ischemic stroke. However, its ...

    Authors: An-Gaëlle Ceulemans, Tine Zgavc, Ron Kooijman, Said Hachimi-Idrissi, Sophie Sarre and Yvette Michotte

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:60

    Content type: Research

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  3. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is - in certain aspects - regarded as an animal model of the human CNS autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS). While in EAE CNS-autoantigen-specific immunity...

    Authors: Vsevolod Smolianov, Thomas Dehmel, Patrick Vollmar, Anne K Mausberg, Bernd C Kieseier, Bernhard Hemmer, Hans P Hartung and Harald H Hofstetter

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:59

    Content type: Research

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  4. Macrophages play an important role in neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury (SCI), being involved in both damage and repair. The divergent effects of macrophages mig...

    Authors: Elly JF Vereyken, Priscilla DAM Heijnen, Wia Baron, Elga HE de Vries, Christine D Dijkstra and Charlotte E Teunissen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:58

    Content type: Research

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  5. Kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) was involved with release of free radicals. Sesamin is a well-known antioxidant from sesame seeds and it scavenges free radicals in several brain injury models....

    Authors: Peiyuan F Hsieh, Chien-Wei Hou, Pei-Wun Yao, Szu-Pei Wu, Yu-Fen Peng, Mei-Lin Shen, Ching-Huei Lin, Ya-Yun Chao, Ming-Hong Chang and Kee-Ching Jeng

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:57

    Content type: Research

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  6. Preterm and term newborns are at high risk of brain damage as well as subsequent cerebral palsy and learning disabilities. Indeed, hypoxia-ischemia (HI), pathogen exposures, and associated intracerebral increa...

    Authors: Marie-Elsa Brochu, Sylvie Girard, Karine Lavoie and Guillaume Sébire

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:55

    Content type: Research

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  7. Interleukin (IL)-6 is produced in the brain during peripheral infection and plays an important but poorly understood role in sickness behavior. Therefore, this study investigated the capacity of soluble gp130 ...

    Authors: Michael D Burton, Nathan L Sparkman and Rodney W Johnson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:54

    Content type: Research

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  8. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produces a neuroinflammatory reaction in rat brain characterized by an increase in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and microglial activation. The CB2 receptor agonist JWH-01...

    Authors: Elisa Torres, Maria D Gutierrez-Lopez, Andrea Mayado, Ana Rubio, Esther O'Shea and Maria I Colado

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:53

    Content type: Research

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  9. Although the cellular mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of autism are not understood, a growing number of studies have suggested that localized inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS) may co...

    Authors: Hongen Wei, Hua Zou, Ashfaq M Sheikh, Mazhar Malik, Carl Dobkin, W Ted Brown and Xiaohong Li

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:52

    Content type: Research

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  10. A critical point during the course of bacterial meningitis is the excessive influx of polymorphnuclear neutrophils (PMNs) from the blood into the brain. Both paracellular and transcellular routes of leukocyte ...

    Authors: Corinna Wewer, Annette Seibt, Hartwig Wolburg, Lilo Greune, M Alexander Schmidt, Jürgen Berger, Hans-Joachim Galla, Ulrike Quitsch, Christian Schwerk, Horst Schroten and Tobias Tenenbaum

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:51

    Content type: Research

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  11. Chronic neurodegeneration comprises an inflammatory response but its contribution to the progression of disease remains unclear. We have previously shown that microglial cells are primed by chronic neurodegene...

    Authors: Carol L Murray, Donal T Skelly and Colm Cunningham

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:50

    Content type: Research

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  12. Axl, together with Tyro3 and Mer, constitute the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases. In the nervous system, Axl and its ligand Growth-arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6) are expressed on multiple cell types....

    Authors: Jason G Weinger, Celia F Brosnan, Olivier Loudig, Michael F Goldberg, Fernando Macian, Heather A Arnett, Anne L Prieto, Vladislav Tsiperson and Bridget Shafit-Zagardo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:49

    Content type: Research

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  13. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection frequently causes neurologic disease, which is the result of viral replication and activation of macrophages and microglia in the CNS, and subsequent secre...

    Authors: Shengbo Cao, Chengxiang Wu, Yongbo Yang, Lynn F Sniderhan, Sanjay B Maggirwar, Stephen Dewhurst and Yuanan Lu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:48

    Content type: Research

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  14. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and chemokne ligand-2 (CCL2) levels have been examined in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patients in Western countries. We measured these values in North Indi...

    Authors: Pawan K Gupta, Sudesh Prabhakar, Suresh Sharma and Akshay Anand

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:47

    Content type: Short report

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  15. Tuberculosis (TB) of the central nervous system (CNS) is a deadly disease characterized by extensive tissue destruction, driven by molecules such as Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) which targets CNS-specifi...

    Authors: Justin A Green, Shruti Dholakia, Karolina Janczar, Catherine WM Ong, Rachel Moores, Julie Fry, Paul T Elkington, Federico Roncaroli and Jon S Friedland

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:46

    Content type: Research

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  16. Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury remains a major problem in newborns, resulting in increased risk of neurological disorders. Neonatal HI triggers a broad inflammatory reaction in the brain, including activat...

    Authors: Linnea Stridh, Peter LP Smith, Andrew S Naylor, Xiaoyang Wang and Carina Mallard

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:45

    Content type: Research

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  17. We previously reported a correlation between levels of microparticles carrying CD31 (PMP CD31+) and disease activity in MS. However, the effects of long term (12 month) treatment with high dose, high frequency in...

    Authors: Mary Lowery-Nordberg, Erin Eaton, Eduardo Gonzalez-Toledo, Meghan K Harris, Kathrine Chalamidas, Jeanie McGee-Brown, Chaitanya V Ganta, Alireza Minagar, David Cousineau and J Steven Alexander

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:43

    Content type: Research

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  18. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes acute inflammatory responses that result in an enduring cascade of secondary neuronal loss and behavioral impairments. It has been reported that progesterone (PROG) can inhi...

    Authors: Fang Hua, Jun Wang, Tauheed Ishrat, Wenjing Wei, Fahim Atif, Iqbal Sayeed and Donald G Stein

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:42

    Content type: Research

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  19. Exposure to the nerve agent soman (GD) causes neuronal cell death and impaired behavioral function dependent on the induction of status epilepticus (SE). Little is known about the maturation of this pathologic...

    Authors: Erik A Johnson, Thuy L Dao, Michelle A Guignet, Claire E Geddes, Andrew I Koemeter-Cox and Robert K Kan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:41

    Content type: Research

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  20. Apoptosis, neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage affect the susceptibility of the developing brain to hypoxic-ischemic (HI) insults. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is an important mediator of i...

    Authors: Yi-Fang Tu, Yau-Sheng Tsai, Lan-Wan Wang, Hsin-Chieh Wu, Chao-Ching Huang and Chien-Jung Ho

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:40

    Content type: Research

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  21. Autoimmunity to the central nervous system (CNS) may play a pathogenic role in a subgroup of patients with autism. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of serum anti-ganglioside M1 auto-antibodies, as...

    Authors: Gehan A Mostafa and Laila Y AL-ayadhi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:39

    Content type: Research

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  22. Previous studies indicate that successful resolution of Lyme neuroborreliosis (NB) is associated with a strong T helper (Th) 1-type cytokine response in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) followed by a down-regulat...

    Authors: Anna J Henningsson, Ivar Tjernberg, Bo-Eric Malmvall, Pia Forsberg and Jan Ernerudh

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:36

    Content type: Research

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  23. The transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP) α, β and δ have been shown to be expressed in brain and to be involved in regulation of inflammatory genes in concert with nuclear factor κB (N...

    Authors: Veronica Ramberg, Linda M Tracy, Malin Samuelsson, Lars NG Nilsson and Kerstin Iverfeldt

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:34

    Content type: Research

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  24. Neuroinflammation and nitroxidative stress are implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. In view of both processes, microglial and astroglial activation in the spinal dorsal horn play a predominan...

    Authors: Julie V Berger, Ronald Deumens, Stéphanie Goursaud, Sabrina Schäfer, Patricia Lavand'homme, Elbert A Joosten and Emmanuel Hermans

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:33

    Content type: Research

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  25. Adaptation to hypoxia and consequent pro-inflammatory gene expression of prostate and breast carcinomas have been implicated in the progression toward cancer malignant phenotype. Only partial data are availabl...

    Authors: Marco Tafani, Maura Di Vito, Alessandro Frati, Laura Pellegrini, Elena De Santis, Giovanni Sette, Adriana Eramo, Patrizio Sale, Emanuela Mari, Antonio Santoro, Antonino Raco, Maurizio Salvati, Ruggero De Maria and Matteo A Russo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:32

    Content type: Research

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  26. Permanent functional deficits following spinal cord injury (SCI) arise both from mechanical injury and from secondary tissue reactions involving inflammation. Enhanced release of adenosine and glutamate soon a...

    Authors: Irene Paterniti, Alessia Melani, Sara Cipriani, Francesca Corti, Tommaso Mello, Emanuela Mazzon, Emanuela Esposito, Placido Bramanti, Salvatore Cuzzocrea and Felicita Pedata

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:31

    Content type: Research

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  27. Changes in the gene expressions for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and/or interleukin-1β (IL-1β) during tinnitus have not been previously reported. We evaluated tinnitus and mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, I...

    Authors: Juen-Haur Hwang, Jin-Cherng Chen, Shan-Ying Yang, Ming-Fu Wang and Yin-Ching Chan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:30

    Content type: Research

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  28. Status epilepticus (SE) is proposed to lead to an age-dependent acute activation of a repertoire of inflammatory processes, which may contribute to neuronal damage in the hippocampus. The extent and temporal p...

    Authors: Juha T Järvelä, Francisco R Lopez-Picon, Anna Plysjuk, Saku Ruohonen and Irma E Holopainen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:29

    Content type: Research

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  29. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine, is capable of activating the small GTPase RhoA, which in turn contributes to endothelial barrier dysfunction. However, the underlying signaling mechani...

    Authors: Jing Peng, Fang He, Ciliu Zhang, Xiaolu Deng and Fei Yin

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:28

    Content type: Research

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  30. Microglial function is modulated by several factors reflecting the numerous receptors expressed on the cell surface, however endogenous factors which contribute to the age-related increase in microglial activa...

    Authors: Anthony Lyons, Kevin J Murphy, Rachael Clarke and Marina A Lynch

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:27

    Content type: Research

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  31. Traumatic injury to axons produces breakdown of axons and myelin at the site of the lesion and then further distal to this where Wallerian degeneration develops. The rapid removal of degenerated myelin by phag...

    Authors: Miri Gitik, Sigal Liraz-Zaltsman, Per-Arne Oldenborg, Fanny Reichert and Shlomo Rotshenker

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:24

    Content type: Research

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  32. Dengue, one of the most important arboviral diseases of humans, may cause severe systemic disease. Although dengue virus (DENV) has been considered to be a non-neurotropic virus, dengue infection has been asso...

    Authors: Debora CG Amaral, Milene A Rachid, Marcia C Vilela, Roberta DL Campos, Gustavo P Ferreira, David H Rodrigues, Norinne Lacerda-Queiroz, Aline S Miranda, Vivian V Costa, Marco A Campos, Erna G Kroon, Mauro M Teixeira and Antonio L Teixeira

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:23

    Content type: Research

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  33. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) exerts neuroprotective actions in the central nervous system that are mediated at least in part by control of activation of astrocytes. In this study we have assessed the e...

    Authors: Maria J Bellini, Claudia B Hereñú, Rodolfo G Goya and Luis M Garcia-Segura

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:21

    Content type: Research

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  34. Dorsal root reflexes (DRRs) are antidromic activities traveling along the primary afferent fibers, which can be generated by peripheral stimulation or central stimulation. DRRs are thought to be involved in th...

    Authors: Oleg V Lobanov and Yuan B Peng

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:20

    Content type: Research

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  35. Non-neuronal cells, such as microglia and lymphocytes, are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Previous studies have demonstrated neuroprotective effects of lymph...

    Authors: Satoru Tada, Tatsusada Okuno, Teruhito Yasui, Yuji Nakatsuji, Tomoyuki Sugimoto, Hitoshi Kikutani and Saburo Sakoda

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:19

    Content type: Research

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  36. Activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and higher concentrations of several kynurenine metabolites have been observed post-stroke, where they have been associated with increased mortality. While lower...

    Authors: Allison B Gold, Nathan Herrmann, Walter Swardfager, Sandra E Black, Richard I Aviv, Gayla Tennen, Alexander Kiss and Krista L Lanctôt

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:17

    Content type: Research

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  37. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1) and its major signaling receptor, CXCR4, were initially described in the immune system; however, they are also expressed in the nervous system, including the spinal cord. A...

    Authors: Vicki M Tysseling, Divakar Mithal, Vibhu Sahni, Derin Birch, Hosung Jung, Richard J Miller and John A Kessler

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:16

    Content type: Research

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:35

  38. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, can activate immune cells including macrophages. Activation of macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) con...

    Authors: Jieliang Li, Li Ye, Denise R Cook, Xu Wang, Jinping Liu, Dennis L Kolson, Yuri Persidsky and Wen-Zhe Ho

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:15

    Content type: Research

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  39. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that contributes to neuronal injury in various degenerative diseases, and is therefore a potential therapeutic target. It exerts its biological effect by a...

    Authors: Fabrizio Gardoni, Mariaserena Boraso, Elisa Zianni, Emanuela Corsini, Corrado L Galli, Flaminio Cattabeni, Marina Marinovich, Monica Di Luca and Barbara Viviani

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:14

    Content type: Short report

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  40. Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), a key enzyme responsible for phosphorylating sphingosine into sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been shown to be expressed in monocytes and monocyte-derived peripheral macrophages...

    Authors: Haiyan Lin, Nimmi Baby, Jia Lu, Charanjit Kaur, Chuansen Zhang, Jiajun Xu, Eng-Ang Ling and S Thameem Dheen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:13

    Content type: Research

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  41. Exogenous administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I has anti-depressant properties in rodent models of depression. However, nothing is known about the anti-depressant properties of IGF-I during infl...

    Authors: Sook-Eun Park, Robert Dantzer, Keith W Kelley and Robert H McCusker

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:12

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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