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  1. Content type: Research

    During pathology of the nervous system, increased extracellular ATP acts both as a cytotoxic factor and pro-inflammatory mediator through P2X7 receptors. In animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a...

    Authors: Mandi Gandelman, Hugo Peluffo, Joseph S Beckman, Patricia Cassina and Luis Barbeito

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:33

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  2. Content type: Research

    Diffuse axonal injury in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be associated with morbidity ranging from cognitive difficulties to coma. Magnetic resonance imaging scans now allow early detection of a...

    Authors: Charu Venkatesan, MaryAnn Chrzaszcz, Nicole Choi and Mark S Wainwright

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:32

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  3. Content type: Research

    Astrocytes play a major role in preserving and restoring structural and physiological integrity following injury to the nervous system. After peripheral axotomy, reactive gliosis propagates within adjacent spi...

    Authors: Amanda Emirandetti, Gustavo F Simões, Renata G Zanon and Alexandre LR Oliveira

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:31

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  4. Content type: Research

    Brain inflammation plays a central role in multiple sclerosis (MS). Dimethylfumarate (DMF), the main ingredient of an oral formulation of fumaric acid esters with proven therapeutic efficacy in psoriasis, has ...

    Authors: Henrik Wilms, Jobst Sievers, Uta Rickert, Martin Rostami-Yazdi, Ulrich Mrowietz and Ralph Lucius

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:30

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  5. Content type: Research

    Overactivated microglia that cluster at neuritic plaques constantly release neurotoxins, which actively contribute to progressive neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, attenuating microglia...

    Authors: Wei-Chao Huang, Feng-Chang Yen, Feng-Shiun Shie, Chih-Ming Pan, Young-Ji Shiao, Cheng-Ning Yang, Fong-Lee Huang, Yen-Jen Sung and Huey-Jen Tsay

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:28

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  6. Content type: Review

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was discovered more than a century ago, and its known roles have extended from within the immune system to include a neuro-inflammatory domain in the nervous system. Neuropa...

    Authors: Lawrence Leung and Catherine M Cahill

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:27

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  7. Content type: Research

    Previously, we found that interleukin (IL)-18 deficiency aggravates kainic acid (KA)-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration in young C57BL/6 mice due to an over-compensation by IL-12. Additionally, IL-18 partic...

    Authors: Xing-Mei Zhang, Tao Jin, Hernan Concha Quezada, Eilhard Mix, Bengt Winblad and Jie Zhu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:26

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  8. Content type: Research

    We previously found that cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) was expressed in dying oligodendrocytes at the onset of demyelination in the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) ...

    Authors: Noel G Carlson, Monica A Rojas, Jonathan W Redd, Philip Tang, Blair Wood, Kenneth E Hill and John W Rose

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:25

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  9. Content type: Research

    Activated complement system is known to mediate neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration following exposure to hypoxic-ischemic insults. Therefore, inhibition of the complement activation cascade may represent ...

    Authors: Ying Wang, Yansong Li, Shawn L Dalle Lucca, Milomir Simovic, George C Tsokos and Jurandir J Dalle Lucca

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:24

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  10. Content type: Research

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system leading to long-term disability. Recent studies indicate a close association between inflammation ...

    Authors: Jofre Tenorio-Laranga, Francisco Coret-Ferrer, Buenaventura Casanova-Estruch, María Burgal and J Arturo García-Horsman

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:23

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  11. Content type: Research

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a ubiquitously expressed cell surface protein reported to be involved in mediating cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. Prior work has demonstrated that APP co-localizes wi...

    Authors: Cindy M Sondag and Colin K Combs

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:22

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  12. Content type: Research

    We report on a newly discovered serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reactivity to Purkinje cells (PCs) associated with subacute inflammatory cerebellar ataxia. The patient, a previously healthy 33-year-old lad...

    Authors: Sven Jarius, Klaus P Wandinger, Sigrun Horn, Heike Heuer and Brigitte Wildemann

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:21

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  13. Content type: Research

    Mercury is known to be neurotoxic, but its effects on the immune system are less well known. Mast cells are involved in allergic reactions, but also in innate and acquired immunity, as well as in inflammation....

    Authors: Duraisamy Kempuraj, Shahrzad Asadi, Bodi Zhang, Akrivi Manola, Jennifer Hogan, Erika Peterson and Theoharis C Theoharides

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:20

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  14. Content type: Research

    Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is a serious, life-threatening, secondary event following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In many cases, ICP rises in a delayed fashion, reaching a maximal level 48-96 hours...

    Authors: Georgene W Hergenroeder, Anthony N Moore, J Philip McCoy Jr, Leigh Samsel, Norman H Ward III, Guy L Clifton and Pramod K Dash

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:19

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  15. Content type: Case report

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common but often asymptomatic disease, characterized by deposition of amyloid in cerebral blood vessels. We describe the successful treatment of CAA encephalopathy with d...

    Authors: Raoul P Kloppenborg, Edo Richard, Marieke ES Sprengers, Dirk Troost, Piet Eikelenboom and Paul J Nederkoorn

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:18

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  16. Content type: Research

    Aβ deposits represent a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both soluble and insoluble Aβ species are considered to be responsible for initiating the pathological cascade that eventually le...

    Authors: Daniel Paris, Nowell J Ganey, Vincent Laporte, Nikunj S Patel, David Beaulieu-Abdelahad, Corbin Bachmeier, Amelia March, Ghania Ait-Ghezala and Michael J Mullan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:17

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  17. Content type: Research

    Interleukin (IL)-6 plays a pivotal role in a variety of CNS functions such as the induction and modulation of reactive astrogliosis, pathological inflammatory responses and neuroprotection. Tumor necrosis fact...

    Authors: Kumiko Tanabe, Rie Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Shinobu Yamaguchi, Hiroki Iida, Shuji Dohi and Osamu Kozawa

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:16

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  18. Content type: Research

    The complement system is a crucial mediator of inflammation and cell lysis after cerebral ischemia. However, there is little information about the exact contribution of the membrane attack complex (MAC) and it...

    Authors: Denise Harhausen, Uldus Khojasteh, Philip F Stahel, B Paul Morgan, Wilfried Nietfeld, Ulrich Dirnagl and George Trendelenburg

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:15

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  19. Content type: Research

    Cerebral ischemia from middle cerebral artery wall (MCA) occlusion results in increased expression of cerebrovascular endothelin and angiotensin receptors and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase...

    Authors: Aida Maddahi and Lars Edvinsson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:14

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:18

  20. Content type: Research

    The long-term neurological consequences of HIV infection and treatment are not yet completely understood. In this study we examined the prevalence of cerebral metabolic abnormalities among a cohort of neurolog...

    Authors: Åse B Andersen, Ian Law, Karen S Krabbe, Helle Bruunsgaard, Sisse R Ostrowski, Henrik Ullum, Liselotte Højgaard, Annemette Lebech, Jan Gerstoft and Andreas Kjær

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:13

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  21. Content type: Research

    Despite intensive studies focused on the pathophysiology of asthmatic inflammation, little is known about how cross-talk between neuroendocrine and immune systems regulates the inflammatory response during an ...

    Authors: Yi-Liang Zhu, Shui-Jun Zhang, Yang-Mei Deng, Xin-Wei Dong, Jun-Xia Jiang and Qiang-Min Xie

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:12

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  22. Content type: Research

    There is a growing body of evidence that unilateral nerve injury induces bilateral response, the mechanism of which is not exactly known. Because cytokines act as crucial signaling molecules for response of pe...

    Authors: Radim Jančálek, Petr Dubový, Ivana Svíženská and Ilona Klusáková

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:11

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  23. Content type: Review

    This review summarizes recent developments in platelet biology relevant to neuroinflammatory disorders. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is taken as the "Poster Child" of these disorders but the implications are wide. ...

    Authors: Lawrence L Horstman, Wenche Jy, Yeon S Ahn, Robert Zivadinov, Amir H Maghzi, Masoud Etemadifar, J Steven Alexander and Alireza Minagar

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:10

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  24. Content type: Review

    Interleukin (IL)-18 is a cytokine isolated as an important modulator of immune responses and subsequently shown to be pleiotropic. IL-18 and its receptors are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) wher...

    Authors: Silvia Alboni, Davide Cervia, Shuei Sugama and Bruno Conti

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:9

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  25. Content type: Research

    The role of neuroinflammation in motor neuron death of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is unclear. The human mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (hmSOD1)-expressing murine transgenic model of ALS has provided so...

    Authors: David J Graber, William F Hickey and Brent T Harris

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:8

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  26. Content type: Research

    Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as...

    Authors: Sophie R Bader, Sonja Kothlow, Sascha Trapp, Susanne CN Schwarz, Hans-Christian Philipp, Steffen Weigend, Ahmad R Sharifi, Rudolf Preisinger, Wolfgang Schmahl, Bernd Kaspers and Kaspar Matiasek

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:7

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  27. Content type: Research

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common dementia in the elderly, and the potential of peripheral biochemical markers as complementary tools in the neuropsychiatric evaluation of these patients has claimed furth...

    Authors: Márcia L Chaves, Ana L Camozzato, Eduardo D Ferreira, Isabel Piazenski, Renata Kochhann, Oscar Dall'Igna, Guilherme S Mazzini, Diogo O Souza and Luis V Portela

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:6

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  28. Content type: Research

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates interrelated inflammatory and coagulation cascades characterized by wide-spread cellular activation, induction of leukocyte and endothelial cell adhesion molecules and re...

    Authors: Shawn G Rhind, Naomi T Crnko, Andrew J Baker, Laurie J Morrison, Pang N Shek, Sandro Scarpelini and Sandro B Rizoli

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:5

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  29. Content type: Research

    Small-conductance Ca2+ activated K+ channels are expressed in the CNS, where KCNN2/SK2/KCa2.2 and KCNN3/SK3/KCa2.3 help shape the electrical activity of some neurons. The SK3 channel is considered a potential the...

    Authors: Lyanne C Schlichter, Vikas Kaushal, Iska Moxon-Emre, Vishanthan Sivagnanam and Catherine Vincent

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:4

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  30. Content type: Research

    Luteolin, a plant derived flavonoid, exerts a variety of pharmacological activities and anti-oxidant properties associated with its capacity to scavenge oxygen and nitrogen species. Luteolin also shows potent ...

    Authors: Konstantin Dirscherl, Marcus Karlstetter, Stefanie Ebert, Dominik Kraus, Julia Hlawatsch, Yana Walczak, Christoph Moehle, Rudolf Fuchshofer and Thomas Langmann

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:3

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:118

  31. Content type: Research

    Recent studies suggest an important role for neurotransmitters as modulators of inflammation. Neuroinflammatory mediators such as cytokines and molecules of the arachidonic acid pathway are generated and relea...

    Authors: Johannes CM Schlachetzki, Bernd L Fiebich, Elisabeth Haake, Antonio CP de Oliveira, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil, Michael T Heneka and Michael Hüll

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:2

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  32. Content type: Research

    The chemokine CXCL13 is known to dictate homing and motility of B cells in lymphoid tissue and has been implicated in the formation of ectopic lymphoid tissue in chronic inflammation. Whether it influences B c...

    Authors: Tobias A Rupprecht, Andreas Plate, Michaela Adam, Manfed Wick, Stefan Kastenbauer, Caroline Schmidt, Matthias Klein, Hans-Walter Pfister and Uwe Koedel

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:42

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  33. Content type: Review

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in several crucial cellular functions, e.g. protein folding and quality control, maintenance of Ca2+ balance, and cholesterol synthesis. Many genetic and environmental i...

    Authors: Antero Salminen, Anu Kauppinen, Tiina Suuronen, Kai Kaarniranta and Johanna Ojala

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:41

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  34. Content type: Research

    Neuroinflammation occurs after seizures and is implicated in epileptogenesis. CCR2 is a chemokine receptor for CCL2 and their interaction mediates monocyte infiltration in the neuroinflammatory cascade trigger...

    Authors: Maira L Foresti, Gabriel M Arisi, Khurshed Katki, Andres Montañez, Russell M Sanchez and Lee A Shapiro

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:40

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  35. Content type: Short report

    Transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPC) constitutes a putative therapeutic maneuver for use in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. At present, effects of NPC transplantation in Alzheimer's diseas...

    Authors: Jae K Ryu, Taesup Cho, Yu Tian Wang and James G McLarnon

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:39

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  36. Content type: Research

    To elucidate the presence and potential involvement of brain inflammation and cell death in neurological morbidity and intractable seizures in childhood epilepsy, we quantified cell death, astrocyte proliferat...

    Authors: Jieun Choi, Douglas R Nordli Jr, Tord D Alden, Arthur DiPatri Jr, Linda Laux, Kent Kelley, Joshua Rosenow, Stephan U Schuele, Veena Rajaram and Sookyong Koh

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:38

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  37. Content type: Research

    Glucocorticoids have been shown to be effective in the treatment of autoimmune diseases of the CNS such as multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the...

    Authors: Željka Miljković, Miljana Momčilović, Djordje Miljković and Marija Mostarica-Stojković

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:37

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  38. Content type: Research

    The excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN) is synthesized through the kynurenine pathway (KP) by activated monocyte lineage cells. QUIN is likely to play a role in the pathogenesis of several major neuroinflammato...

    Authors: Ka Ka Ting, Bruce J Brew and Gilles J Guillemin

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:36

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  39. Content type: Research

    A causal role of the complement system in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis has been postulated based on the identification of different activated components up to the membrane attack complex at amyloid plaques...

    Authors: Julia Reichwald, Simone Danner, Karl-Heinz Wiederhold and Matthias Staufenbiel

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:35

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  40. Content type: Research

    In the periphery, C5a acts through the G-protein coupled receptor CD88 to enhance/maintain inflammatory responses. In the brain, CD88 can be expressed on astrocytes, microglia and neurons. Previous studies hav...

    Authors: James W Crane, Gilang P Baiquni, Robert KP Sullivan, John D Lee, Pankaj Sah, Stephen M Taylor, Peter G Noakes and Trent M Woodruff

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:34

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  41. Content type: Research

    Autoimmune diseases, like multiple sclerosis, are triggered by uncontrolled activation of cells of the immune system against self-antigen present, for instance, in the central nervous system. We have reported ...

    Authors: Nikolaos Paschalidis, Asif J Iqbal, Francesco Maione, Elisabeth G Wood, Mauro Perretti, Rod J Flower and Fulvio D'Acquisto

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:33

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  42. Content type: Research

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of preventable death and serious morbidity in young adults. This complex pathological condition is characterized by significant blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage t...

    Authors: Mushfiquddin Khan, Yeong-Bin Im, Anandakumar Shunmugavel, Anne G Gilg, Ramanpreet K Dhindsa, Avtar K Singh and Inderjit Singh

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:32

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  43. Content type: Research

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies reactive with intracellular neuronal proteins have been described in paraneoplastic and other autoimmune disorders. Because neurons have been thought impermeable to immunoglob...

    Authors: Kenneth E Hill, Susan A Clawson, John W Rose, Noel G Carlson and John E Greenlee

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:31

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  44. Content type: Research

    Patients with severe burn injury experience a rapid elevation in multiple circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, with the levels correlating with both injury severity and outcome. Accumulations of these cytok...

    Authors: Joshua W Gatson, David L Maass, James W Simpkins, Ahamed H Idris, Joseph P Minei and Jane G Wigginton

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:30

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  45. Content type: Commentary

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) remains without an effective treatment in spite of intense research efforts. Interferon-beta (IFN-β) reduces duration and severity of symptoms in many relapsing-remitting MS patients, b...

    Authors: Theoharis C Theoharides

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:29

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  46. Content type: Research

    The study is aimed to determine the role of luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), alone and in combination with human interferon-beta (IFN-β), in modulating the immune response(s) of peripheral blood monon...

    Authors: Zohara Sternberg, Kailash Chadha, Alicia Lieberman, Allison Drake, David Hojnacki, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman and Frederick Munschauer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:28

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  47. Content type: Short report

    Recently, a novel factor with anorexigenic properties was identified and called nesfatin-1. This protein (82 aac) is not only expressed in peripheral organs but it is also found in neurons located in specific ...

    Authors: Marion S Bonnet, Emilie Pecchi, Jérôme Trouslard, André Jean, Michel Dallaporta and Jean-Denis Troadec

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:27

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  48. Content type: Short report

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol present in grapes and red wine, has been studied due to its vast pharmacological activity. It has been demonstrated that resveratrol inhibits production of inflammatory mediators in d...

    Authors: Lena Wendeburg, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Harsharan S Bhatia, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil and Bernd L Fiebich

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:26

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