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  1. Statins such as simvastatin are inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase used in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In addition to their cholesterol-lowering activities, s...

    Authors: Emanuela Esposito, Barbara Rinaldi, Emanuela Mazzon, Maria Donniacuo, Daniela Impellizzeri, Irene Paterniti, Annalisa Capuano, Placido Bramanti and Salvatore Cuzzocrea

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:81

    Content type: Research

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  2. In multiple sclerosis relapses refractory to intravenous corticosteroid therapy, plasma exchange is recommended. Immunoadsorption (IA) is regarded as an alternative therapy, but its efficacy and putative mecha...

    Authors: Michael J Koziolek, Desiree Tampe, Matthias Bähr, Hassan Dihazi, Klaus Jung, Dirk Fitzner, Reinhard Klingel, Gerhard A Müller and Bernd Kitze

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:80

    Content type: Research

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  3. Several factors contribute to the deterioration in synaptic plasticity which accompanies age and one of these is neuroinflammation. This is characterized by increased microglial activation associated with incr...

    Authors: Niamh Murphy, Thelma R Cowley, Christoph W Blau, Colin N Dempsey, Janis Noonan, Aoife Gowran, Riffat Tanveer, Weredeselam M Olango, David P Finn, Veronica A Campbell and Marina A Lynch

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:79

    Content type: Research

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  4. Cerebral ischemia is associated with the activation of glial cells, infiltration of leukocytes and an increase in inflammatory mediators in the ischemic brain and systemic circulation. How this inflammatory re...

    Authors: Corinne Benakis, Anne Vaslin, Christian Pasquali and Lorenz Hirt

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:76

    Content type: Short report

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  5. Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal disease-associated prion protein, PrPSc. In prion-infected brains, activated microglia are often present in the vici...

    Authors: Fushan Shi, Lifeng Yang, Mohammed Kouadir, Yang Yang, Jihong Wang, Xiangmei Zhou, Xiaomin Yin and Deming Zhao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:73

    Content type: Research

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  6. Inflammation caused by the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi is an important factor in the pathogenesis of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Our central hypothesis is that B. burgdorferi can cause disease via the induc...

    Authors: Geeta Ramesh, Shemi Benge, Bapi Pahar and Mario T Philipp

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:72

    Content type: Research

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  7. Stress during fetal life increases the risk of affective and immune disorders later in life. The altered peripheral immune response caused by prenatal stress may impact on brain function by the modification of...

    Authors: Yolanda Diz-Chaves, Olga Pernía, Paloma Carrero and Luis M Garcia-Segura

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:71

    Content type: Research

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  8. Perinatal brain injury is complex and associated with both inflammation and hypoxia-ischaemia (HI). In adult inflammatory brain injury models, therapies to increase acetylation are efficacious in reducing infl...

    Authors: Bobbi Fleiss, Marie KL Nilsson, Klas Blomgren and Carina Mallard

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:70

    Content type: Research

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  9. Neuroinflammation plays an important role in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has been reported to be involved in the inflammatory response of many central nervous system d...

    Authors: Ketan Chu, Bo Yin, Jingye Wang, Guoping Peng, Hui Liang, Ziqi Xu, Yue Du, Marong Fang, Qiang Xia and Benyan Luo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:69

    Content type: Research

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  10. Astrocytes are an integral component of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) which may be compromised by ischemic or traumatic brain injury. In response to trauma, astrocytes increase expression of the endopeptidase ...

    Authors: Hantamalala Ralay Ranaivo, Jessica N Hodge, Nicole Choi and Mark S Wainwright

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:68

    Content type: Research

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  11. The RING domain-containing protein RING finger protein 11 (RNF11) is a member of the A20 ubiquitin-editing protein complex and modulates peripheral NF-κB signaling. RNF11 is robustly expressed in neurons and c...

    Authors: Elaine L Pranski, Nirjari V Dalal, Jeremy H Herskowitz, Adam L Orr, Leah A Roesch, Jason J Fritz, Craig Heilman, James J Lah, Allan I Levey and Ranjita S Betarbet

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:67

    Content type: Research

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  12. Emerging data implicate nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT) in the pathogenesis of cancer and inflammation. NAMPT inhibitors have proven beneficial in inflammatory animal models of arthritis and en...

    Authors: Emanuela Esposito, Daniela Impellizzeri, Emanuela Mazzon, Gohar Fakhfouri, Reza Rahimian, Cristina Travelli, Gian Cesare Tron, Armando A Genazzani and Salvatore Cuzzocrea

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:66

    Content type: Research

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  13. Microglia and macrophages (MG/MΦ) have a diverse range of functions depending on unique cytokine stimuli, and contribute to neural cell death, repair, and remodeling during central nervous system diseases. Whi...

    Authors: Atsushi Sato, Hirokazu Ohtaki, Tomomi Tsumuraya, Dandan Song, Kenji Ohara, Masahide Asano, Yoichiro Iwakura, Takashi Atsumi and Seiji Shioda

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:65

    Content type: Research

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  14. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN; CD147, basigin) is an inducer of the expression of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We reported previously that blocking EMMPRIN activity reduc...

    Authors: Smriti M Agrawal, Claudia Silva, Janet Wang, Jade Pui-Wai Tong and V Wee Yong

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:64

    Content type: Research

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  15. Inflammation is known to play a pivotal role in mediating neuronal damage and axonal injury in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. Among the range of inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide and hydrogen per...

    Authors: Elizabeth Gray, Mark Ginty, Kevin Kemp, Neil Scolding and Alastair Wilkins

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:63

    Content type: Research

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  16. A growing body of evidence indicates that inflammation is one of the earliest neuropathological events in Alzheimer's disease. Accordingly, we have recently shown the occurrence of an early, pro-inflammatory r...

    Authors: Maria Teresa Ferretti, Simon Allard, Vanessa Partridge, Adriana Ducatenzeiler and A Claudio Cuello

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:62

    Content type: Research

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  17. Mice with peroxisome deficiency in neural cells (Nestin-Pex5 −/− ) develop a neurodegenerative phenotype leading to mo...

    Authors: Astrid Bottelbergs, Simon Verheijden, Paul P Van Veldhoven, Wilhelm Just, Rita Devos and Myriam Baes

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:61

    Content type: Research

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  18. The extent to which susceptibility to brain hemorrhage is derived from blood-derived factors or stromal tissue remains largely unknown. We have developed an inducible model of CD8 T cell-initiated blood-brain ...

    Authors: Holly L Johnson, Yi Chen, Georgette L Suidan, Jeremiah R McDole, Anne K Lohrey, Lisa M Hanson, Fang Jin, Istvan Pirko and Aaron J Johnson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:60

    Content type: Research

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  19. Prions, composed of a misfolded protein designated PrPSc, are infectious agents causing fatal neurodegenerative diseases. We have shown previously that, following induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomye...

    Authors: Yael Friedman-Levi, Romana Hoftberger, Herbert Budka, Tehila Mayer-Sonnenfeld, Oded Abramsky, Haim Ovadia and Ruth Gabizon

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:58

    Content type: Research

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  20. Neuroinflammation occurs as a result of microglial activation in response to invading micro-organisms or other inflammatory stimuli within the central nervous system. According to our earlier findings, Krüppel...

    Authors: Deepak Kumar Kaushik, Rupanjan Mukhopadhyay, Kanhaiya Lal Kumawat, Malvika Gupta and Anirban Basu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:57

    Content type: Research

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  21. Schizophrenia is a debilitating and complex mental disorder whose exact etiology remains unknown. There is growing amount of evidence of a relationship between neuroinflammation, as demonstrated by microglial ...

    Authors: Kristian Liaury, Tsuyoshi Miyaoka, Toshiko Tsumori, Motohide Furuya, Rei Wake, Masa Ieda, Keiko Tsuchie, Michiyo Taki, Kotomi Ishihara, Andi Jayalangkara Tanra and Jun Horiguchi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:56

    Content type: Research

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  22. Microglia are one of the main cell types to be productively infected by HIV-1 in the central nervous system (CNS). Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and cysteinyl-leukotrienes such as LTC4 are some of the proinflammatory mol...

    Authors: Jonathan Bertin, Corinne Barat, Dave Bélanger and Michel J Tremblay

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:55

    Content type: Research

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  23. S100B is a calcium-binding protein that is produced primarily by astrocytes. Increased serum S100B protein levels reflect neurological damage. Autoimmunity may have a role in the pathogenesis of autism in some...

    Authors: Laila Yousef Al-Ayadhi and Gehan Ahmed Mostafa

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:54

    Content type: Research

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  24. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are major inhibitory molecules for neural plasticity under both physiological and pathological conditions. The chondroitin sulfate degrading enzyme chondroitinase ABC promotes...

    Authors: Ryoji Tauchi, Shiro Imagama, Takamitsu Natori, Tomohiro Ohgomori, Akio Muramoto, Ryuichi Shinjo, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Naoki Ishiguro and Kenji Kadomatsu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:53

    Content type: Research

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  25. Methamphetamine (MA) is one of the commonly used illicit drugs and the central nervous system toxicity of MA is well documented. The mechanisms contributing to this toxicity have not been fully elucidated. In ...

    Authors: Ankit Shah, Peter S Silverstein, Dhirendra P Singh and Anil Kumar

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:52

    Content type: Research

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  26. Long-term acetate supplementation reduces neuroglial activation and cholinergic cell loss in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation. Additionally, a single dose of glyceryl triacetate, use...

    Authors: Mahmoud L Soliman, Mark D Smith, Heidi M Houdek and Thad A Rosenberger

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:51

    Content type: Research

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  27. Neuropathology caused by acute viral infection of the brain is associated with the development of persistent neurological deficits. Identification of the immune effectors responsible for injuring the brain dur...

    Authors: Charles L Howe, Reghann G LaFrance-Corey, Rhianna S Sundsbak and Stephanie J LaFrance

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:50

    Content type: Research

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  28. In addition to cytotoxic mechanisms directly impacting neurons, β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced glial activation also promotes release of proinflammatory molecules that may self-perpetuate reactive gliosis and damage n...

    Authors: Caterina Scuderi, Marta Valenza, Claudia Stecca, Giuseppe Esposito, Maria Rosaria Carratù and Luca Steardo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:49

    Content type: Research

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  29. An increase in intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]i is one of the first events to take place after brain ischemia. A key [Ca2+]i-regulated signaling molecule is the phosphatase calcineurin (CN), which play...

    Authors: Mónica Sobrado, Belén G Ramirez, Fernando Neria, Ignacio Lizasoain, Maria Lourdes Arbones, Takashi Minami, Juan Miguel Redondo, María Ángeles Moro and Eva Cano

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:48

    Content type: Research

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  30. Neurodegeneration, induced by misfolded tau protein, and neuroinflammation, driven by glial cells, represent the salient features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related human tauopathies. While tau neurodegen...

    Authors: Norbert Zilka, Zuzana Kazmerova, Santosh Jadhav, Peter Neradil, Aladar Madari, Dominika Obetkova, Ondrej Bugos and Michal Novak

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:47

    Content type: Review

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  31. Inflammatory injury plays a critical role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced neurological deficits; however, the signaling pathways are not apparent by which the upstream cellular events trigger innate ...

    Authors: Sen Lin, Qing Yin, Qi Zhong, Feng-Lin Lv, Yu Zhou, Jing-Qi Li, Jing-Zhou Wang, Bing-yin Su and Qing-Wu Yang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:46

    Content type: Research

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  32. Cerebral cortical neurons have a high vulnerability to the harmful effects of hypoxia. However, the brain has the ability to detect and accommodate to hypoxic conditions. This phenomenon, known as precondition...

    Authors: Ramiro Echeverry, Fang Wu, Woldeab B Haile, Jialing Wu and Manuel Yepes

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:45

    Content type: Research

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  33. Cerebral inflammation is a hallmark of neuronal degeneration. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV, aminopeptidase N as well as the dipeptidyl peptidases II, 8 and 9 and cytosolic alanyl-aminopeptidase are involved in the ...

    Authors: Peter Röhnert, Werner Schmidt, Patrick Emmerlich, Alexander Goihl, Sabine Wrenger, Ute Bank, Karsten Nordhoff, Michael Täger, Siegfried Ansorge, Dirk Reinhold and Frank Striggow

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:44

    Content type: Research

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  34. Traumatic brain injury initiates biochemical processes that lead to secondary neurodegeneration. Imaging studies suggest that tissue loss may continue for months or years after traumatic brain injury in associ...

    Authors: Kimberly R Byrnes, David J Loane, Bogdan A Stoica, Jiangyang Zhang and Alan I Faden

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:43

    Content type: Research

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  35. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a cytokine having multiple functions in the central nervous system such as promoting repair mechanisms in degenerative diseases and stroke. To date, however, its neuropr...

    Authors: Fabrizio Piras, Francesca Salani, Paola Bossù, Carlo Caltagirone and Gianfranco Spalletta

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:42

    Content type: Research

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  36. CD4+ CD25+ forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)+ regulatory T cells (T reg cells) are known to suppress adaptive immune responses, key control tolerance and autoimmunity.

    Authors: Kerstin Göbel, Stefan Bittner, Nico Melzer, Susann Pankratz, Angela Dreykluft, Michael K Schuhmann, Sven G Meuth and Heinz Wiendl

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:41

    Content type: Research

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  37. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies in non-neuronal and neuronal tissues have shown that different pathways of macrophage activation result in cells with different properties. Interleukin (IL)-6 triggers the clas...

    Authors: Alexander Rodriguez Guerrero, Kenzo Uchida, Hideaki Nakajima, Shuji Watanabe, Masaya Nakamura, William EB Johnson and Hisatoshi Baba

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:40

    Content type: Research

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  38. TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) is the sole downstream adaptor of Toll-like receptor (TLR)3, which is one of the major signaling pathways in immune cells leading to neuroinflammation...

    Authors: Sen Lin, Yajie Liang, Jiqiang Zhang, Chen Bian, Hongli Zhou, Qiang Guo, Ying Xiong, Shurong Li and Bingyin Su

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:39

    Content type: Research

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  39. Several recent studies have shown that angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1) antagonists such as candesartan inhibit the microglial inflammatory response and dopaminergic cell loss in animal models of Parkinson's ...

    Authors: Pablo Garrido-Gil, Belen Joglar, Ana I Rodriguez-Perez, Maria J Guerra and Jose L Labandeira-Garcia

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:38

    Content type: Research

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  40. In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central ner...

    Authors: Muriel Tahtouh, Annelise Garçon-Bocquet, Françoise Croq, Jacopo Vizioli, Pierre-Eric Sautière, Christelle Van Camp, Michel Salzet, Patricia Nagnan-le Meillour, Joël Pestel and Christophe Lefebvre

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:37

    Content type: Research

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  41. Sustained neuroinflammation strongly contributes to the pathogenesis of pain. The clinical challenge of chronic pain relief led to the identification of molecules such as cytokines, chemokines and more recentl...

    Authors: Lara Kular, Cyril Rivat, Brigitte Lelongt, Claire Calmel, Maryvonne Laurent, Michel Pohl, Patrick Kitabgi, Stéphane Melik-Parsadaniantz and Cécile Martinerie

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:36

    Content type: Research

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  42. Neuroinflammation is important in the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer disease (AD). Previously, we demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation caused memory impairments. In t...

    Authors: Young-Jung Lee, Dong-Young Choi, Im Seop Choi, Ki Ho Kim, Young Hee Kim, Hwan Mook Kim, Kiho Lee, Won Gil Cho, Jea Kyung Jung, Sang Bae Han, Jin-Yi Han, Sang-Yoon Nam, Young Won Yun, Jae Hwang Jeong, Ki-Wan Oh and Jin Tae Hong

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:35

    Content type: Research

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  43. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α activator, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA), is an arachidonic acid analog. It is reported to inhibit up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes; howe...

    Authors: Jee Hoon Lee, Hyunmi Kim, Joo Hong Woo, Eun-hye Joe and Ilo Jou

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:34

    Content type: Research

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  44. A brief exposure to systemic hypoxia (i.e., hypoxic preconditioning; HPC) prior to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) reduces infarct volume, blood-brain barrier disruption, and leukocyte migra...

    Authors: Ann M Stowe, Bradley K Wacker, Petra D Cravens, Jennifer L Perfater, Min K Li, Ruilong Hu, Angela B Freie, Olaf Stüve and Jeffrey M Gidday

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:33

    Content type: Research

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  45. Both (-) and (+)-naloxone attenuate inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration by inhibition of microglial activation through superoxide reduction in an opioid receptor-independent manner. Multiple lines of evide...

    Authors: Qingshan Wang, Hui Zhou, Huiming Gao, Shih-Heng Chen, Chun-Hsien Chu, Belinda Wilson and Jau-Shyong Hong

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:32

    Content type: Research

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  46. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces activation of microglia. Activated microglia can in turn increase secondary injury and impair recovery. This innate immune response requires hours to days to become fully m...

    Authors: Joana C d’Avila, Tina I Lam, Deborah Bingham, Jian Shi, Seok Joon Won, Tiina M Kauppinen, Stephen Massa, Jialing Liu and Raymond A Swanson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:31

    Content type: Research

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