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  1. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease affecting the central nervous system that is either sporadic or familial origin and causing the death of motor neurons. One of the genetic factors contributing ...

    Authors: Eun Jin Yang, Jing Hua Jiang, Sang Min Lee, Sun Choel Yang, Hye Suk Hwang, Myeong Soo Lee and Sun-Mi Choi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:69

    Content type: Research

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  2. Activation of microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), is the hallmark of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases and other pathological conditions associated with CNS i...

    Authors: Deepak K Kaushik, Malvika Gupta, Sulagna Das and Anirban Basu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:68

    Content type: Research

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  3. The chemokine CCL2 (also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, or MCP-1) is upregulated in patients and rodent models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), contributing to post-traumatic neuroinflammation an...

    Authors: Bridgette D Semple, Tony Frugier and M Cristina Morganti-Kossmann

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:67

    Content type: Research

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  4. Brain edema leading to high intracranial pressure is a lethal complication of acute liver failure (ALF), which is believed to be cytotoxic due to swelling of astrocytes. In addition to the traditional view tha...

    Authors: Kakulavarapu V Rama Rao, Arumugam R Jayakumar, Xiaoying Tong, Veronica M Alvarez and Michael D Norenberg

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:66

    Content type: Research

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  5. Numerous epidemiological studies demonstrate that genetic background modifies the onset and the progression of Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegenerative disorders. The efficacious influence of genetic ...

    Authors: Zuzana Stozicka, Norbert Zilka, Petr Novak, Branislav Kovacech, Ondrej Bugos and Michal Novak

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:64

    Content type: Research

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  6. Most neurodegenerative diseases are age-related disorders; however, how aging predisposes the brain to disease has not been adequately addressed. The objective of this study is to determine whether expression ...

    Authors: Debjani Tripathy, Xiangling Yin, Alma Sanchez, Jinhua Luo, Joseph Martinez and Paula Grammas

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:63

    Content type: Research

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  7. TGFβ is both neuroprotective and a key immune system modulator and is likely to be an important target for future stroke therapy. The precise function of increased TGF-β1 after stroke is unknown and its pleiot...

    Authors: Kristian P Doyle, Egle Cekanaviciute, Lauren E Mamer and Marion S Buckwalter

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:62

    Content type: Research

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  8. Microglial activation plays an integral role in the development and course of neurodegeneration. Although neuropeptides such as bradykinin (BK), somatostatin (SST), and endothelin (ET) are known to be importan...

    Authors: Sigal Fleisher-Berkovich, Talia Filipovich-Rimon, Sarit Ben-Shmuel, Claudia Hülsmann, Markus P Kummer and Michael T Heneka

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:61

    Content type: Research

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  9. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the endpoint of a complex and still poorly understood process which results in inflammation, demyelination and axonal and neuronal degeneration. Since the first description of MS, ps...

    Authors: Beatriz G Pérez-Nievas, Borja García-Bueno, José LM Madrigal and Juan C Leza

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:60

    Content type: Research

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  10. The classic neuritic β-amyloid plaque of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is typically associated with activated microglia and neuroinflammation. Similarly, cerebrovascular β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits are surrounded by pe...

    Authors: Philipp Spitzer, Martin Herrmann, Hans-Wolfgang Klafki, Alexander Smirnov, Piotr Lewczuk, Johannes Kornhuber, Jens Wiltfang and Juan Manuel Maler

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:59

    Content type: Research

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  11. Passive immunization with antibodies directed to Aβ decreases brain Aβ/amyloid burden and preserves memory in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This therapeutic strategy is under intense scr...

    Authors: S Sakura Minami, Elkhansa Sidahmed, Saba Aid, Mika Shimoji, Takako Niikura, Italo Mocchetti, G William Rebeck, Jay S Prendergast, Chris Dealwis, Ronald Wetzel, Francesca Bosetti, Yasuji Matsuoka, Hyang-Sook Hoe and R Scott Turner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:57

    Content type: Research

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  12. Inflammation and microglial activation are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Somewhat surprisingly, injection of a prototypical inflammatory agent, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into brains of amy...

    Authors: Daniel C Lee, Justin Rizer, Maj-Linda B Selenica, Patrick Reid, Clara Kraft, Amelia Johnson, Laura Blair, Marcia N Gordon, Chad A Dickey and Dave Morgan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:56

    Content type: Research

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  13. Recent studies have demonstrated an inflammatory response associated with the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. The beneficial effects of anti-inflammatory drugs in cerebral ischemia have been documented. ...

    Authors: Wanglin Jiang, Shuping Zhang, Fenghua Fu, Haibo Zhu and Jian Hou

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:55

    Content type: Research

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  14. In several neuropathological conditions, microglia can become overactivated and cause neurotoxicity by initiating neuronal damage in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. Our previous studies have shown that e...

    Authors: Xuesen Yang, Genlin He, Yutong Hao, Chunhai Chen, Maoquan Li, Yuan Wang, Guangbin Zhang and Zhengping Yu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:54

    Content type: Research

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  15. Neuroinflammation is a complex process involving cells from the immune system and the central nerve system (CNS). Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the most abundant class of white blood cells, and typic...

    Authors: Luokun Xie, Ethan C Poteet, Wenjun Li, Amanda E Scott, Ran Liu, Yi Wen, Anuja Ghorpade, James W Simpkins and Shao-Hua Yang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:53

    Content type: Research

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  16. In 70-80% of cases, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is associated with highly specific serum auto-antibodies to aquaporin-4 (termed AQP4-Ab or NMO-IgG). Recent evidence strongly suggests that AQP4-Ab are directly i...

    Authors: Sven Jarius, Diego Franciotta, Friedemann Paul, Klemens Ruprecht, Roberto Bergamaschi, Paulus S Rommer, Reinhard Reuss, Christian Probst, Wolfgang Kristoferitsch, Klaus Peter Wandinger and Brigitte Wildemann

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:52

    Content type: Research

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  17. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 has been shown to attenuate oxidative injury and reduce apoptosis. HO-1 can be induced by various stimuli released during cellular injury, such as heme. Deleterious free heme is degraded ...

    Authors: Wen S Sheng, Shuxian Hu, Adam R Nettles, James R Lokensgard, Gregory M Vercellotti and R Bryan Rock

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:51

    Content type: Research

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  18. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are severe central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disorders (CNS IDD) characterized by monophasic or relapsing, longitudinally extensive transverse my...

    Authors: Koon H Chan, Jason SC Kwan, Philip WL Ho, Jessica WM Ho, Andrew CY Chu and David B Ramsden

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:50

    Content type: Research

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  19. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders diagnosed in early childhood. They are associated with a set of "core symptoms" that include disabilities in social interac...

    Authors: Asimenia Angelidou, Konstantinos Francis, Magdalini Vasiadi, Konstantinos-Dionysios Alysandratos, Bodi Zhang, Athanasios Theoharides, Lefteris Lykouras, Kyriaki Sideri, Dimitrios Kalogeromitros and Theoharis C Theoharides

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:48

    Content type: Short report

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  20. Inflammatory responses in the CNS mediated by activated glial cells play an important role in host-defense but are also involved in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Resveratrol is a natural polyp...

    Authors: Xiaofeng Lu, Lili Ma, Lingfei Ruan, Yan Kong, Haiwei Mou, Zhijie Zhang, Zhijun Wang, Ji Ming Wang and Yingying Le

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:46

    Content type: Research

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  21. Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by both mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of microglia, the macrophages of the brain. Here, we investigate the effects of mitochondrial dysfunction on the ac...

    Authors: Annette I Ferger, Loretta Campanelli, Valentina Reimer, Katharina N Muth, Irma Merdian, Albert C Ludolph and Anke Witting

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:45

    Content type: Research

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  22. Transient stimulation of the innate immune system by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates peripheral and central expression of the tryptophan degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3 diox...

    Authors: Xin Fu, Samantha M Zunich, Jason C O'Connor, Annemieke Kavelaars, Robert Dantzer and Keith W Kelley

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:43

    Content type: Research

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  23. The enzyme cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha (cPLA2α) has been implicated in the progression of cerebral injury following ischemia and reperfusion. Previous studies in rodents suggest that cPLA2α enhances delayed ...

    Authors: Koji Kishimoto, Rung-Chi Li, Jian Zhang, Judith A Klaus, Kathleen K Kibler, Sylvain Doré, Raymond C Koehler and Adam Sapirstein

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:42

    Content type: Research

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  24. We hypothesized that gp91phox (NOX2), a subunit of NADPH oxidase, generates superoxide anion (O2-) and has a major causative role in traumatic brain injury (TBI). To evaluate the functional role of gp91phox and r...

    Authors: Kenji Dohi, Hirokazu Ohtaki, Tomoya Nakamachi, Sachiko Yofu, Kazue Satoh, Kazuyuki Miyamoto, Dandan Song, Shohko Tsunawaki, Seiji Shioda and Tohru Aruga

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:41

    Content type: Research

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  25. Neuroinflammation occurs following brain injury, including soman (GD) induced status epilepticus (SE), and may contribute to loss of neural tissue and declined behavioral function. However, little is known abo...

    Authors: Erik A Johnson and Robert K Kan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:40

    Content type: Research

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  26. Recently, using a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IIIB, a lysosomal storage disease with severe neurological deterioration, we showed that MPS IIIB neuropathology is accompanied by a robust neuroinf...

    Authors: Smruti Killedar, Julianne DiRosario, Erin Divers, Phillip G Popovich, Douglas M McCarty and Haiyan Fu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:39

    Content type: Research

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  27. A major site of initiation of inflammatory responses upon physical perturbation(s) and infection by invading organisms is the skin. Control of responses in this organ is, in part, modulated by the neuronal nic...

    Authors: Lorise C Gahring, Amber V Osborne, Michelle Reed and Scott W Rogers

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:38

    Content type: Research

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  28. Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition, the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Gut inflammation causes significant changes in neurally controlled gut functions in...

    Authors: Shaheen E Lakhan and Annette Kirchgessner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:37

    Content type: Review

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  29. The pro-nociceptive kinin B1 receptor (B1R) is upregulated on sensory C-fibres, astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rat. This study aims at defining the role of microglial...

    Authors: Sébastien Talbot, Emna Chahmi, Jenny Pena Dias and Réjean Couture

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:36

    Content type: Research

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  30. Using a murine model of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 encephalitis, our laboratory has determined that induction of proinflammatory mediators in response to viral infection is largely mediated through a Toll-li...

    Authors: Scott J Schachtele, Shuxian Hu, Morgan R Little and James R Lokensgard

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:35

    Content type: Research

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  31. CHI3L1 (YKL-40) is up-regulated in a variety of inflammatory conditions and cancers. We have previously reported elevated CHI3L1 concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of human and non-human primates w...

    Authors: Dafna Bonneh-Barkay, Guoji Wang, Adam Starkey, Ronald L Hamilton and Clayton A Wiley

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:34

    Content type: Research

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  32. During pathology of the nervous system, increased extracellular ATP acts both as a cytotoxic factor and pro-inflammatory mediator through P2X7 receptors. In animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a...

    Authors: Mandi Gandelman, Hugo Peluffo, Joseph S Beckman, Patricia Cassina and Luis Barbeito

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:33

    Content type: Research

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  33. Diffuse axonal injury in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be associated with morbidity ranging from cognitive difficulties to coma. Magnetic resonance imaging scans now allow early detection of a...

    Authors: Charu Venkatesan, MaryAnn Chrzaszcz, Nicole Choi and Mark S Wainwright

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:32

    Content type: Research

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  34. Astrocytes play a major role in preserving and restoring structural and physiological integrity following injury to the nervous system. After peripheral axotomy, reactive gliosis propagates within adjacent spi...

    Authors: Amanda Emirandetti, Gustavo F Simões, Renata G Zanon and Alexandre LR Oliveira

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:31

    Content type: Research

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  35. Brain inflammation plays a central role in multiple sclerosis (MS). Dimethylfumarate (DMF), the main ingredient of an oral formulation of fumaric acid esters with proven therapeutic efficacy in psoriasis, has ...

    Authors: Henrik Wilms, Jobst Sievers, Uta Rickert, Martin Rostami-Yazdi, Ulrich Mrowietz and Ralph Lucius

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:30

    Content type: Research

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  36. Overactivated microglia that cluster at neuritic plaques constantly release neurotoxins, which actively contribute to progressive neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, attenuating microglia...

    Authors: Wei-Chao Huang, Feng-Chang Yen, Feng-Shiun Shie, Chih-Ming Pan, Young-Ji Shiao, Cheng-Ning Yang, Fong-Lee Huang, Yen-Jen Sung and Huey-Jen Tsay

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:28

    Content type: Research

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  37. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was discovered more than a century ago, and its known roles have extended from within the immune system to include a neuro-inflammatory domain in the nervous system. Neuropa...

    Authors: Lawrence Leung and Catherine M Cahill

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:27

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  38. Previously, we found that interleukin (IL)-18 deficiency aggravates kainic acid (KA)-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration in young C57BL/6 mice due to an over-compensation by IL-12. Additionally, IL-18 partic...

    Authors: Xing-Mei Zhang, Tao Jin, Hernan Concha Quezada, Eilhard Mix, Bengt Winblad and Jie Zhu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:26

    Content type: Research

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  39. We previously found that cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) was expressed in dying oligodendrocytes at the onset of demyelination in the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) ...

    Authors: Noel G Carlson, Monica A Rojas, Jonathan W Redd, Philip Tang, Blair Wood, Kenneth E Hill and John W Rose

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:25

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Activated complement system is known to mediate neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration following exposure to hypoxic-ischemic insults. Therefore, inhibition of the complement activation cascade may represent ...

    Authors: Ying Wang, Yansong Li, Shawn L Dalle Lucca, Milomir Simovic, George C Tsokos and Jurandir J Dalle Lucca

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:24

    Content type: Research

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  41. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system leading to long-term disability. Recent studies indicate a close association between inflammation ...

    Authors: Jofre Tenorio-Laranga, Francisco Coret-Ferrer, Buenaventura Casanova-Estruch, María Burgal and J Arturo García-Horsman

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:23

    Content type: Research

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  42. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a ubiquitously expressed cell surface protein reported to be involved in mediating cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. Prior work has demonstrated that APP co-localizes wi...

    Authors: Cindy M Sondag and Colin K Combs

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:22

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. We report on a newly discovered serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reactivity to Purkinje cells (PCs) associated with subacute inflammatory cerebellar ataxia. The patient, a previously healthy 33-year-old lad...

    Authors: Sven Jarius, Klaus P Wandinger, Sigrun Horn, Heike Heuer and Brigitte Wildemann

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:21

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Mercury is known to be neurotoxic, but its effects on the immune system are less well known. Mast cells are involved in allergic reactions, but also in innate and acquired immunity, as well as in inflammation....

    Authors: Duraisamy Kempuraj, Shahrzad Asadi, Bodi Zhang, Akrivi Manola, Jennifer Hogan, Erika Peterson and Theoharis C Theoharides

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:20

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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