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  1. Elevated levels of cytokines/chemokines contribute to increased neuroinvasion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Previous work showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is present in the plasma ...

    Authors: Shinya Dohgu, Melissa A Fleegal-DeMotta and William A Banks

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:167

    Content type: Research

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  2. Activated microglia are a feature of the host response to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) and are thought to contribute to disease progression. Recent evidence suggests that extracellular α-synuc...

    Authors: Yvonne Couch, Lydia Alvarez-Erviti, Nicola R Sibson, Matthew JA Wood and Daniel C Anthony

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:166

    Content type: Research

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  3. Preconditioning is a phenomenon by which tolerance develops to injury by previous exposure to a stressor of mild severity. Previous studies have shown that single or repeated low dose MDMA can attenuate 5-HT t...

    Authors: Andrea Mayado, Elisa Torres, Maria D Gutierrez-Lopez, Maria I Colado and Esther O'Shea

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:165

    Content type: Research

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  4. Systemic inflammation impairs outcome in stroke patients and experimental animals via mechanisms which are poorly understood. Circulating inflammatory mediators can activate cerebrovascular endothelium or glia...

    Authors: Ádám Dénes, Szilamér Ferenczi and Krisztina J Kovács

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:164

    Content type: Research

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  5. Paraquat (1, 1-dimethyl-4, 4-bipyridium dichloride; PQ) causes neurotoxicity, especially dopaminergic neurotoxicity, and is a supposed risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the cellular and molecu...

    Authors: Soham Mitra, Nilkanta Chakrabarti and Arindam Bhattacharyya

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:163

    Content type: Research

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  6. The glio-vascular unit (G-unit) plays a prominent role in maintaining homeostasis of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and disturbances in cells forming this unit may seriously dysregulate BBB. The direct and indi...

    Authors: Ganta V Chaitanya, Walter E Cromer, Shannon R Wells, Merilyn H Jennings, P Olivier Couraud, Ignacio A Romero, Babette Weksler, Anat Erdreich-Epstein, J Michael Mathis, Alireza Minagar and J Steven Alexander

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:162

    Content type: Research

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  7. Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a putative autoantigen in multiple sclerosis (MS). Establishing the pathological relevance and validity of anti-MOG antibodies as biomarkers has yielded conflicting...

    Authors: Til Menge, Patrice H Lalive, H-Christian von Büdingen and Claude P Genain

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:161

    Content type: Research

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  8. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease that carries a 30 day mortality of approximately 45%. Only 20% of survivors return to independent function at 6 months. The role of inflammation in the p...

    Authors: Shruti Agnihotri, Alexandra Czap, Ilene Staff, Gil Fortunato and Louise D McCullough

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:160

    Content type: Short report

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  9. Neuroimmune modulation following traumatic stress is accompanied by cortical upregulation of c-Src expression, but the mechanistic details of the potential regulatory link between c-Src expression and immunosu...

    Authors: Hui Zhao, Ranran Yao, Xiaoding Cao and Gencheng Wu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:159

    Content type: Research

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  10. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which blood-derived immune cells and activated microglia damage myelin in the central nervous system. While oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are ess...

    Authors: Karolina Kucharova, Yunchao Chang, Andrej Boor, Voon Wee Yong and William B Stallcup

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:158

    Content type: Research

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  11. As the primary resident immune cells, microglia play a central role in regulating inflammatory processes in the CNS. The extracellular matrix (ECM) protein vitronectin promotes microglial activation, switching...

    Authors: Jennifer V Welser-Alves, Amin Boroujerdi, Ulrich Tigges and Richard Milner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:157

    Content type: Research

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  12. Microglia and astrocytes respond to homeostatic disturbances with profound changes of gene expression. This response, known as glial activation or neuroinflammation, can be detrimental to the surrounding tissu...

    Authors: Marco Straccia, Núria Gresa-Arribas, Guido Dentesano, Aroa Ejarque-Ortiz, Josep M Tusell, Joan Serratosa, Carme Solà and Josep Saura

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:156

    Content type: Research

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  13. Multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), is characterized by blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and massive infiltration of activated immune cells. Engagement of ...

    Authors: Camille L Pittet, Jia Newcombe, Alexandre Prat and Nathalie Arbour

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:155

    Content type: Research

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  14. Increasing evidence suggests that microglial activation may participate in the aetiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). CD200-CD200R signalling has been shown to be critical for restraining micr...

    Authors: Shi Zhang, Xi-Jin Wang, Li-Peng Tian, Jing Pan, Guo-Qiang Lu, Ying-Jie Zhang, Jian-Qing Ding and Sheng-Di Chen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:154

    Content type: Research

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  15. Betaine (glycine betaine or trimethylglycine) plays important roles as an osmolyte and a methyl donor in animals. While betaine is reported to suppress expression of proinflammatory molecules and reduce oxidat...

    Authors: Masaya Miwa, Mizuki Tsuboi, Yumiko Noguchi, Aoi Enokishima, Toshitaka Nabeshima and Masayuki Hiramatsu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:153

    Content type: Research

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  16. Amyloid β (Aβ) accumulates in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Microglial activation also occurs in AD, and this inflammatory response may contribute to disease progression. Microglial activation can be induced...

    Authors: Tiina M Kauppinen, Sang Won Suh, Youichirou Higashi, Ari E Berman, Carole Escartin, Seok Joon Won, Chao Wang, Seo-Hyun Cho, Li Gan and Raymond A Swanson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:152

    Content type: Research

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  17. There is a pressing need to identify novel pathophysiological pathways relevant to depression that can help to reveal targets for the development of new medications. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) has a regulato...

    Authors: Iciar Gárate, Borja García-Bueno, José LM Madrigal, Lidia Bravo, Esther Berrocoso, Javier R Caso, Juan A Micó and Juan C Leza

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:151

    Content type: Research

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  18. β-Amyloid (Aβ) plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Neurons are major sources of Aβ in the brain. However, astrocytes outnumber neurons by at least five-fold. Thus, even a small level...

    Authors: Jie Zhao, Tracy O'Connor and Robert Vassar

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:150

    Content type: Research

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  19. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an acquired inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) and is the leading cause of nontraumatic disability among young adults. Activated microglial cells...

    Authors: Noemí Virgili, Juan F Espinosa-Parrilla, Pilar Mancera, Andrea Pastén-Zamorano, Javier Gimeno-Bayon, Manuel J Rodríguez, Nicole Mahy and Marco Pugliese

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:149

    Content type: Research

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  20. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) evokes a systemic immune response including leukocyte migration into the brain and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines; however, the mechanisms underlying TBI pathogenesis and pr...

    Authors: Mahasweta Das, Christopher C Leonardo, Saniya Rangooni, Keith R Pennypacker, Subhra Mohapatra and Shyam S Mohapatra

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:148

    Content type: Research

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  21. The combination of diffuse brain injury with a hypoxic insult is associated with poor outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury. In this study, we investigated the impact of post-traumatic hypoxia in am...

    Authors: Edwin B Yan, Sarah C Hellewell, Bo-Michael Bellander, Doreen A Agyapomaa and M Cristina Morganti-Kossmann

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:147

    Content type: Research

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  22. Clinical trials evaluating anti-CD20-mediated B-cell depletion in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) generated encouraging results. Our recent studies in the MS model experimental autoimmun...

    Authors: Klaus Lehmann-Horn, Eva Schleich, Deetje Hertzenberg, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Tania Kümpfel, Nikolas von Bubnoff, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Achim Berthele, Bernhard Hemmer and Martin S Weber

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:146

    Content type: Research

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  23. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV)-1 leads to some form of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in approximately half of the cases. The mechanisms by which astrocytes contribu...

    Authors: Manmeet K Mamik, Sugato Banerjee, Timothy F Walseth, Renee Hirte, Lin Tang, Kathleen Borgmann and Anuja Ghorpade

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:145

    Content type: Research

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  24. Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is an X-linked peroxisomal disorder characterized by the abnormal beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA). In 35-40% of children with ALD, an acute inflammatory process...

    Authors: Paul J Orchard, Troy Lund, Wes Miller, Steven M Rothman, Gerald Raymond, David Nascene, Lisa Basso, James Cloyd and Jakub Tolar

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:144

    Content type: Research

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  25. Vasogenic edema dynamically accumulates in many brain disorders associated with brain inflammation, with the critical step of edema exacerbation feared in patient care. Water entrance through blood-brain barri...

    Authors: Thomas Tourdias, Nobuyuki Mori, Iulus Dragonu, Nadège Cassagno, Claudine Boiziau, Justine Aussudre, Bruno Brochet, Chrit Moonen, Klaus G Petry and Vincent Dousset

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:143

    Content type: Research

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  26. Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by social and emotional deficits, language impairments and stereotyped behaviors that manifest in early postnatal life. This study aims to clarify the relations...

    Authors: Afaf K El-Ansary, Abir G Ben Bacha and Laila Y Al-Ayadhi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:142

    Content type: Research

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  27. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is activated in response to cerebral ischemia leading to substantial brain damage. In contrast, mild activation of TLR4 by preconditioning with low dose exposure to lipopolysacchari...

    Authors: Keri B Vartanian, Susan L Stevens, Brenda J Marsh, Rebecca Williams-Karnesky, Nikola S Lessov and Mary P Stenzel-Poore

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:140

    Content type: Research

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  28. Brain microvascular pericytes are important constituents of the neurovascular unit. These cells are physically the closest cells to the microvascular endothelial cells in brain capillaries. They significantly ...

    Authors: Andrej Kovac, Michelle A Erickson and William A Banks

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:139

    Content type: Research

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  29. Age-related cognitive dysfunction, including impairment of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory, affects approximately half of the aged population. Induction of a variety of neuroinflammatory meas...

    Authors: Heather D VanGuilder, Georgina V Bixler, Robert M Brucklacher, Julie A Farley, Han Yan, Junie P Warrington, William E Sonntag and Willard M Freeman

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:138

    Content type: Research

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  30. Mounting evidence supports a significant role of inflammation in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathophysiology, with several inflammatory pathways being suggested as playing a role in the dopaminergic degeneration ...

    Authors: Janelle Drouin-Ouellet, Claire Gibrat, Mélanie Bousquet, Frédéric Calon, Jasna Kriz and Francesca Cicchetti

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:137

    Content type: Research

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  31. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) represents a reasonable functional and positional candidate gene for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as it is located under the linkage region of AD on chromosome 4q, and functionally is invo...

    Authors: Jin-Tai Yu, Shan-Mao Mou, Li-Zhu Wang, Cai-Xia Mao and Lan Tan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:136

    Content type: Short report

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  32. Cerebral ischemia triggers acute inflammation, which has been associated with an increase in brain damage. The mechanisms that regulate the inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia are multifaceted. An im...

    Authors: Yan-Chun Wang, Sen Lin and Qing-Wu Yang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:134

    Content type: Review

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  33. SB623 cells are expanded from marrow stromal cells (MSCs) transfected with a Notch intracellular domain (NICD)-expressing plasmid. In stroke-induced animals, these cells reduce infarct size and promote functio...

    Authors: Mo A Dao, Ciara C Tate, Irina Aizman, Michael McGrogan and Casey C Case

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:133

    Content type: Research

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  34. Amyloidogenesis is linked to neuroinflammation. The tyrosine-fructose Maillard reaction product, 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal, possesses anti-inflammatory properties in cultured macrophages, and in an arthr...

    Authors: Young-Jung Lee, Dong-Young Choi, Im Seup Choi, Jin-Yi Han, Heon-Sang Jeong, Sang Bae Han, Ki-Wan Oh and Jin Tae Hong

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:132

    Content type: Research

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  35. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) has become a powerful tool in the visualization of immune cell dynamics and cellular communication within the complex biological networks of the inflamed central ne...

    Authors: Josephine Herz, Magdalena Paterka, Raluca A Niesner, Alexander U Brandt, Volker Siffrin, Tina Leuenberger, Jerome Birkenstock, Agata Mossakowski, Robert Glumm, Frauke Zipp and Helena Radbruch

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:131

    Content type: Research

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  36. Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces secondary tissue damage that is associated with inflammation. We have previously demonstrated that inflammation-related gene expression after SCI occurs in two waves - an initi...

    Authors: Kimberly R Byrnes, Patricia M Washington, Susan M Knoblach, Eric Hoffman and Alan I Faden

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:130

    Content type: Research

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  37. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are necessary for appropriate responses to immune challenges. In the brain, excess superoxide production predicts neuronal cell loss, sugges...

    Authors: W Michael Zawada, Gregg P Banninger, Jennifer Thornton, Beth Marriott, David Cantu, Angela L Rachubinski, Mita Das, W Sue T Griffin and Susan M Jones

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:129

    Content type: Research

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  38. Inflammatory responses in brain are primarily mediated by microglia, but growing evidence suggests a crucial importance of astrocytes. S100B, a calcium-binding protein secreted by astrocytes, has properties of...

    Authors: Maria Cristina Guerra, Lucas S Tortorelli, Fabiana Galland, Carollina Da Ré, Elisa Negri, Douglas S Engelke, Letícia Rodrigues, Marina C Leite and Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:128

    Content type: Research

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  39. The breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier vascular endothelium is critical for entry of immune cells into the MS brain. Vascular co-morbidities are associated with increased risk of progression. Dyslipidemia, e...

    Authors: Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Robert Zivadinov, Naeem Mahfooz, Ellen Carl, Allison Drake, Jaclyn Schneider, Barbara Teter, Sara Hussein, Bijal Mehta, Marc Weiskopf, Jacqueline Durfee, Niels Bergsland and Murali Ramanathan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:127

    Content type: Research

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  40. During inflammation, immune cells accumulate in damaged areas and release pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophins. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a neuromodulatory role in spinal cord dors...

    Authors: Ya-Tin Lin, Long-Sun Ro, Hung-Li Wang and Jin-Chung Chen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:126

    Content type: Research

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  41. Microglial cells are important effectors of the neuronal innate immune system with a major role in chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Curcumin, a major component of tumeric, alleviates pro-inflammatory activi...

    Authors: Marcus Karlstetter, Elena Lippe, Yana Walczak, Christoph Moehle, Alexander Aslanidis, Myriam Mirza and Thomas Langmann

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:125

    Content type: Research

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  42. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is a bacteriostatic factor that may also modulate cellular function, however, little is known concerning the expression or role of Lcn2 in CNS inflammation. Therefore, here we investigated t...

    Authors: Jacque PK Ip, Aline L Noçon, Markus J Hofer, Sue Ling Lim, Marcus Müller and Iain L Campbell

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:124

    Content type: Research

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  43. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proinflammatory cytokines by microglial cells in response to viral brain infection contributes to both pathogen clearance and neuronal damage. In the present stu...

    Authors: Shuxian Hu, Wen S Sheng, Scott J Schachtele and James R Lokensgard

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:123

    Content type: Research

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  44. While it is clear that inbred strains of mice have variations in immunological responsiveness, the influence of genetic background following tissue damage in the central nervous system is not fully understood....

    Authors: David J Graber, Brent T Harris and William F Hickey

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:122

    Content type: Research

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  45. Activation of glial cells, including astrocytes and microglia, has been implicated in the inflammatory responses underlying brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's dis...

    Authors: Wenwen Sheng, Yijia Zong, Arwa Mohammad, Deepa Ajit, Jiankun Cui, Dongdong Han, Jennifer L Hamilton, Agnes Simonyi, Albert Y Sun, Zezong Gu, Jau-Shyong Hong, Gary A Weisman and Grace Y Sun

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:121

    Content type: Research

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  46. Retinal neovascularization has been intensively investigated in the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Here, we studied the contribution of microglial cells to vascular regression during the hype...

    Authors: Franziska Fischer, Gottfried Martin and Hansjürgen T Agostini

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:120

    Content type: Research

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  47. Recent data indicate that inflammatory mechanisms contribute to diabetic retinopathy (DR). We have determined that serine racemase (SR) expression is increased by inflammatory stimuli including liposaccharide ...

    Authors: Haiyan Jiang, Junxu Fang, Bo Wu, Guibin Yin, Lin Sun, Jia Qu, Steven W Barger and Shengzhou Wu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:119

    Content type: Research

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  48. Burn survivors develop long-term cognitive impairment with increased inflammation and apoptosis in the brain. Gelsolin, an actin-binding protein with capping and severing activities, plays a crucial role in th...

    Authors: Qing-Hong Zhang, Qi Chen, Jia-Rui Kang, Chen Liu, Ning Dong, Xiao-Mei Zhu, Zhi-Yong Sheng and Yong-Ming Yao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:118

    Content type: Research

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