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  1. Content type: Research

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) with its associated morbidity is a major area of unmet medical need that lacks effective therapies. TBI initiates a neuroinflammatory cascade characterized by activation of astrocy...

    Authors: Eric Lloyd, Kathleen Somera-Molina, Linda J Van Eldik, D Martin Watterson and Mark S Wainwright

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:28

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  2. Content type: Research

    A fatality in one multiple sclerosis (MS) patient due to acute idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and a near fatality in another stimulated our interest in platelet function abnormalities in MS. Previou...

    Authors: William A Sheremata, Wenche Jy, Lawrence L Horstman, Yeon S Ahn, J Steven Alexander and Alireza Minagar

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:27

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  3. Content type: Research

    The complement system has been suggested to affect injury or disease of the central nervous system (CNS) by regulating numerous physiological events and pathways. The activation of complement following traumat...

    Authors: Hal X Nguyen, Manuel D Galvan and Aileen J Anderson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:26

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  4. Content type: Review

    There is now a large body of evidence linking inflammation to Alzheimer's disease (AD). This association manifests itself neuropathologically in the presence of activated microglia and astrocytes around neurit...

    Authors: Magdalena Sastre, Jochen Walter and Steve M Gentleman

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:25

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  5. Content type: Research

    Deficiency of membrane G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase-5 (GRK5) recently has been linked to early AD pathogenesis, and has been suggested to contribute to augmented microglial activation in vitro by sens...

    Authors: Longxuan Li, Jun Liu and William Z Suo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:24

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  6. Content type: Research

    Aβ deposits in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are closely associated with innate immune responses such as activated microglia and increased cytokines. Accumulating evidence supports the h...

    Authors: Jing-Ji Jin, Hong-Duck Kim, J Adam Maxwell, Ling Li and Ken-ichiro Fukuchi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:23

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  7. Content type: Review

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe, debilitating human disease that predominantly features immunopathology in the optic nerves and the spinal cord. An IgG1 autoantibody (NMO-IgG) that binds aquaporin 4 (AQ...

    Authors: David J Graber, Michael Levy, Douglas Kerr and William F Wade

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:22

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  8. Content type: Research

    Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) through over-activation of microglia, which consequently causes the excessive production of proinflammatory and neurotoxic f...

    Authors: Dan Zhang, Xiaoming Hu, Sung-Jen Wei, Jie Liu, Huiming Gao, Li Qian, Belinda Wilson, Gengtao Liu and Jau-Shyong Hong

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:21

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  9. Content type: Research

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by myelin oligodendrocyte protein (MOG) in female Dark Agouti (DA) rats is a chronic demyelinating animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). To identify new ...

    Authors: Andre M Mueller, Xiomara Pedré, Thomas Stempfl, Ingo Kleiter, Sebastien Couillard-Despres, Ludwig Aigner, Gerhard Giegerich and Andreas Steinbrecher

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:20

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  10. Content type: Research

    It has recently become apparent that neuroinflammation may play a significant role in Parkinson's disease (PD). This is also the case in animal paradigms of the disease. The potential neuroprotective action of...

    Authors: Alexander Harkavyi, Amjad Abuirmeileh, Rebecca Lever, Ann E Kingsbury, Christopher S Biggs and Peter S Whitton

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:19

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  11. Content type: Research

    Excitotoxic brain insult is associated with extensive neuronal damage but could also cause inflammatory reactivity and vascular remodeling. The effects of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibito...

    Authors: Jae K Ryu and James G McLarnon

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:18

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  12. Content type: Research

    Cyclooxygenases (COX) -1 and -2 are key mediators of the inflammatory response in the central nervous system. Since COX-2 is inducible by inflammatory stimuli, it has been traditionally considered as the most ...

    Authors: Saba Aid, Robert Langenbach and Francesca Bosetti

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:17

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  13. Content type: Short report

    Neonatal Borna Disease Virus (BDV) infection in rats leads to a neuronal loss in the cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. Since BDV is a non-lytic infection in vitro, it has been suggested that activated microglia...

    Authors: Mikhail V Ovanesov, Krisztina Moldovan, Kimberly Smith, Michael W Vogel and Mikhail V Pletnikov

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:16

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  14. Content type: Research

    Activation of the peripheral innate immune system stimulates the secretion of CNS cytokines that modulate the behavioral symptoms of sickness. Excessive production of cytokines by microglia, however, may cause...

    Authors: Christopher J Henry, Yan Huang, Angela Wynne, Mark Hanke, Justin Himler, Michael T Bailey, John F Sheridan and Jonathan P Godbout

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:15

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  15. Content type: Research

    Recent animal and human studies implicate chronic activation of microglia in the progressive loss of CNS neurons. The inflammatory mechanisms that have neurotoxic effects and contribute to neurodegeneration ne...

    Authors: Thi A Tran, Melissa K McCoy, Michael B Sporn and Malú G Tansey

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:14

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  16. Content type: Research

    Inflammation is associated with Aβ pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and transgenic AD models. Previously, it has been demonstrated that chronic stimulation of the immune response induces pro-inflammatory ...

    Authors: Kathryn E Nichol, Wayne W Poon, Anna I Parachikova, David H Cribbs, Charles G Glabe and Carl W Cotman

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:13

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  17. Content type: Research

    High levels of serum cholesterol and disruptions of the blood brain barrier (BBB) have all been implicated as underlying mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Results from studies conducted in...

    Authors: Xuesong Chen, Jeremy W Gawryluk, John F Wagener, Othman Ghribi and Jonathan D Geiger

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:12

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  18. Content type: Research

    Shiga toxins (Stxs) are the major agents responsible for hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) during infections caused by Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) such as serotype O157:H7. Central...

    Authors: Kiyomi Takahashi, Nobuaki Funata, Fusahiro Ikuta and Shigehiro Sato

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:11

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  19. Content type: Research

    Cytokines and alcohol share a common modulation of inflammation and hormones as well as being implicated in multiple diseases, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investi...

    Authors: Liya Qin, Jun He, Richard N Hanes, Olivera Pluzarev, Jau-Shyong Hong and Fulton T Crews

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:10

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  20. Content type: Research

    The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains elusive despite identification of several genetic mutations. It is more likely that multiple factors converge to give rise to PD than any single cause. Here we ...

    Authors: James B Koprich, Casper Reske-Nielsen, Prabhakar Mithal and Ole Isacson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:8

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  21. Content type: Short report

    The complement system is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of numerous neurological diseases. We previously reported that pre-treatment of murine cortico-hippocampal neuronal cultures with the complem...

    Authors: Piali Mukherjee, Sunil Thomas and Giulio Maria Pasinetti

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:5

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  22. Content type: Research

    Previous studies have suggested that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ)-mediated neuroprotection involves inhibition of microglial activation and decreased expression and activity of ind...

    Authors: Bin Xing, Tao Xin, Randy Lee Hunter and Guoying Bing

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:4

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  23. Content type: Hypothesis

    Recent studies have demonstrated a role for spinal p38 MAP kinase (MAPK) in the development of chronic inflammation and peripheral arthritis and a role for GABA in the inhibition of p38 MAPK mediated effects. ...

    Authors: James M Kelley, Laura B Hughes and S Louis Bridges Jr

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:1

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  24. Content type: Research

    Activation of microglia is a part of the inflammatory response in neurodegenerative diseases but its role in the pathophysiology of these diseases is still unclear. The osteopetrotic (op/op) mouse lacks colony...

    Authors: Yoichi Kondo, Cynthia A Lemere and Timothy J Seabrook

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:31

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  25. Content type: Research

    In multiple sclerosis, inflammatory cells are found in both active and chronic lesions, and it is increasingly clear that cytokines are involved directly and indirectly in both formation and inhibition of lesi...

    Authors: Robert P Lisak, Joyce A Benjamins, Beverly Bealmear, Liljana Nedelkoska, Bin Yao, Susan Land and Diane Studzinski

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:30

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  26. Content type: Research

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is genetically associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Elucidating the function of APP should help understand AD pathogenesis and provide insights into therapeutic designs...

    Authors: Yuzhi Chen and Angela M Bodles

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:29

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  27. Content type: Research

    Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and mature oligodendrocytes are both lost in central nervous system injury and disease. Activated microglia may play a role in OPC and oligodendrocyte loss or replacemen...

    Authors: Brandon A Miller, Jeannine M Crum, C Amy Tovar, Adam R Ferguson, Jacqueline C Bresnahan and Michael S Beattie

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:28

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  28. Content type: Research

    Activated microglia elicits a robust amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in the central nervous system (CNS). However, little is known about the intra...

    Authors: Chul-Su Yang, Hye-Mi Lee, Ji-Yeon Lee, Jeong-Ah Kim, Sung Joong Lee, Dong-Min Shin, Young-Ho Lee, Dong-Seok Lee, Jamel El-Benna and Eun-Kyeong Jo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:27

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  29. Content type: Research

    Neuroinflammatory responses are triggered by diverse ethiologies and can provide either beneficial or harmful results. Microglial cells are the major cell type involved in neuroinflammation, releasing several ...

    Authors: Eduardo Candelario-Jalil, Antonio C Pinheiro de Oliveira, Sybille Gräf, Harsharan S Bhatia, Michael Hüll, Eduardo Muñoz and Bernd L Fiebich

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:25

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  30. Content type: Research

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are thought to mediate cellular infiltration in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation by cleaving extracellular matrix proteins associated with the blood-brain barrier. The...

    Authors: Henrik Toft-Hansen, Alicia A Babcock, Jason M Millward and Trevor Owens

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:24

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  31. Content type: Research

    The mechanisms involved in the induction and regulation of inflammation resulting in dopaminergic (DA) neurotoxicity in Parkinson's disease (PD) are complex and incompletely understood. Microglia-mediated infl...

    Authors: Li Qian, Zongli Xu, Wei Zhang, Belinda Wilson, Jau-Shyong Hong and Patrick M Flood

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:23

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  32. Content type: Research

    An accumulating body of evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that excessive or prolonged increases in proinflammatory cytokine production by activated glia is a contributor to the progression of pathophy...

    Authors: Lenka Munoz, Hantamalala Ralay Ranaivo, Saktimayee M Roy, Wenhui Hu, Jeffrey M Craft, Laurie K McNamara, Laura Wing Chico, Linda J Van Eldik and D Martin Watterson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:21

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  33. Content type: Research

    Rabbits maintained on high-cholesterol diets are known to show increased immunoreactivity for amyloid beta protein in cortex and hippocampus, an effect that is amplified by presence of copper in the drinking w...

    Authors: Qing-Shan Xue, D Larry Sparks and Wolfgang J Streit

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:20

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  34. Content type: Short report

    We have recently observed that the corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRF) related peptide urocortin (UCN) reverses key features of nigrostriatal damage in the hemiparkinsonian 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat. H...

    Authors: Amjad Abuirmeileh, Alexander Harkavyi, Rebecca Lever, Christopher S Biggs and Peter S Whitton

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:19

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  35. Content type: Research

    Neuroinflammation following acute brain trauma is considered to play a prominent role in both the pathological and reconstructive response of the brain to injury. Here we characterize and contrast both an acut...

    Authors: Anthony J Williams, Hans H Wei, Jitendra R Dave and Frank C Tortella

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:17

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  36. Content type: Research

    Potential surrogate markers of disease activity, including response to therapy, are particularly important in a neurological disorder such as multiple sclerosis (MS) which often has a fluctuating course. Based...

    Authors: Alireza Minagar, Irena Adamashvili, Roger E Kelley, Eduardo Gonzalez-Toledo, Jerry McLarty and Stacy J Smith

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:16

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  37. Content type: Research

    The CC chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 are critical for the recruitment of mononuclear phagocytes to the central nervous system (CNS) in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neuroinflammatory diseases. Mo...

    Authors: Sana Eltayeb, Anna-Lena Berg, Hans Lassmann, Erik Wallström, Maria Nilsson, Tomas Olsson, Anders Ericsson-Dahlstrand and Dan Sunnemark

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:14

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  38. Content type: Research

    The posttraumatic response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized, in part, by activation of the innate immune response, including the complement system. We have recently shown that mice devoid of a ...

    Authors: Iris Leinhase, Michal Rozanski, Denise Harhausen, Joshua M Thurman, Oliver I Schmidt, Amir M Hossini, Mohy E Taha, Daniel Rittirsch, Peter A Ward, V Michael Holers, Wolfgang Ertel and Philip F Stahel

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:13

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  39. Content type: Research

    Neuroinflammation has been implicated in various brain pathologies characterized by hypoxia and ischemia. Astroglia play an important role in the initiation and propagation of hypoxia/ischemia-induced inflamma...

    Authors: Jelena Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Debbie Callaghan, Hong Cui, Clare Dean, Danica B Stanimirovic and Wandong Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:12

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  40. Content type: Research

    Information regarding the response of brain cells to infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 is needed for a complete understanding of viral neuropathogenesis. We have recently demonstrated that microglial...

    Authors: Rajagopal N Aravalli, Shuxian Hu and James R Lokensgard

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:11

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  41. Content type: Research

    It is well appreciated that obtaining sufficient numbers of primary microglia for in vitro experiments has always been a challenge for scientists studying the biological properties of these cells. Supplementing c...

    Authors: Nilufer Esen and Tammy Kielian

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:10

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