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  1. Administration of exogenous interferon-γ (IFNγ) aggravates the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), whereas interferon-β (IFNβ) is used for treatment of MS patients. We previously demonstrated that IFNγ induce...

    Authors: Makoto Horiuchi, Aki Itoh, David Pleasure, Keiko Ozato and Takayuki Itoh

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Hearing loss is a frequent long-term complication of pneumococcal meningitis (PM). Its main pathological correlate is damage to the organ of Corti and loss of spiral ganglion neurons. The only current treatmen...

    Authors: Cornelia Demel, Tobias Hoegen, Armin Giese, Barbara Angele, Hans-Walter Pfister, Uwe Koedel and Matthias Klein

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:7

    Content type: Research

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  3. We have previously reported that inhibition of astrocytic activation contributes to the analgesic effects of intrathecal ketamine on spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain. However, the underlyin...

    Authors: Xiao-Peng Mei, Hui Zhang, Wei Wang, Yan-Yan Wei, Ming-Zhu Zhai, Wen Wang, Li-Xian Xu and Yun-Qing Li

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:6

    Content type: Research

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  4. The phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) exhibits antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. The present study was designed to explore its effects in a mouse model of sepsis-related encephalitis by intravenous...

    Authors: Lourdes Ruiz-Valdepeñas, José A Martínez-Orgado, Cristina Benito, África Millán, Rosa M Tolón and Julián Romero

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:5

    Content type: Research

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  5. Complement proteins and activation products have been found associated with neuropathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, a C5a receptor antagonist was shown to suppress neuropathology in two murine mo...

    Authors: Maria I Fonseca, Shu-Hui Chu, Alisia M Berci, Marie E Benoit, Douglas G Peters, Yuko Kimura and Andrea J Tenner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:4

    Content type: Research

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  6. β-Amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a major protein in the brain associated with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of macrophage antigen-1 (MAC1) receptor, an in...

    Authors: Dan Zhang, Xiaoming Hu, Li Qian, Shih-Heng Chen, Hui Zhou, Belinda Wilson, David S Miller and Jau-Shyong Hong

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:3

    Content type: Research

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  7. The plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) express a high level of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9), which recognizes viral DNA. Activated via TLR-9, pDCs also secrete large amounts of type I interferon which are inv...

    Authors: Ana Leda F Longhini, Felipe von Glehn, Carlos Otávio Brandão, Rosemeire FO de Paula, Fernando Pradella, Adriel S Moraes, Alessandro S Farias, Elaine C Oliveira, Juan G Quispe-Cabanillas, Cassiana Horta Abreu, Alfredo Damasceno, Benito P Damasceno, Konstantin E Balashov and Leonilda MB Santos

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:2

    Content type: Short report

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  8. Reactive astrocytes are capable of producing a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators and potentially neurotoxic compounds, including nitric oxide (NO). High amounts of NO are synthesized following up-regulatio...

    Authors: Lucia Lisi, Pierluigi Navarra, Douglas L Feinstein and Cinzia Dello Russo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:1

    Content type: Research

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  9. Deciphering the mechanisms that modulate the inflammatory response induced by microglial activation not only improves our insight into neuroinflammation but also provides avenues for designing novel therapies ...

    Authors: Mei-Jen Wang, Hsin-Yi Huang, Wu-Fu Chen, Hui-Fen Chang and Jon-Son Kuo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:99

    Content type: Research

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  10. Kinin B1 receptors are inducible molecules up-regulated after inflammatory stimuli. This study evaluated the relevance of kinin B1 receptors in a mouse depression behavior model.

    Authors: Alice F Viana, Izaque S Maciel, Fabiana N Dornelles, Claudia P Figueiredo, Jarbas M Siqueira, Maria M Campos and João B Calixto

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:98

    Content type: Research

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  11. The exact mechanism underlying HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders still remains largely unresolved. However, viral genes (for example gp120 and tat) and their effect on cytokine/chemokine expressions have be...

    Authors: Ankit Shah and Anil Kumar

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:96

    Content type: Research

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  12. Angiogenesis is a common finding in chronic inflammatory diseases; however, its role in multiple sclerosis (MS) is unclear. Central nervous system lesions from both MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyel...

    Authors: Timothy J Seabrook, Amanda Littlewood-Evans, Volker Brinkmann, Bernadette Pöllinger, Christian Schnell and Peter C Hiestand

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:95

    Content type: Research

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  13. Inflammation acting in synergy with brain ischemia aggravates perinatal ischemic brain damage. The sensitizing effect of pro-inflammatory exposure prior to hypoxia is dependent on signaling by TNF-α through TN...

    Authors: Tina Markus, Stefan R Hansson, Tobias Cronberg, Corrado Cilio, Tadeusz Wieloch and David Ley

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:94

    Content type: Research

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  14. Interactions between fractalkine (CX3CL1) and fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) regulate microglial activation in the CNS. Recent findings indicate that age-associated impairments in CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 are directly as...

    Authors: Angela W Corona, Yan Huang, Jason C O'Connor, Robert Dantzer, Keith W Kelley, Phillip G Popovich and Jonathan P Godbout

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:93

    Content type: Research

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  15. Unilateral vestibular deafferentation results in strong microglial and astroglial activation in the vestibular nuclei (VN) that could be due to an inflammatory response. This study was aimed at determining if ...

    Authors: Martine Liberge, Christine Manrique, Laurence Bernard-Demanze and Michel Lacour

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:91

    Content type: Research

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  16. Purified intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) obtained from the plasma of healthy humans is indicated for the treatment of primary immunodeficiency disorders associated with defects in humoral immunity. IVIG cont...

    Authors: Johanna Magga, Lakshman Puli, Rea Pihlaja, Katja Kanninen, Suvi Neulamaa, Tarja Malm, Wolfgang Härtig, Jens Grosche, Gundars Goldsteins, Heikki Tanila, Jari Koistinaho and Milla Koistinaho

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:90

    Content type: Research

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  17. Studies of cerebral ischemia and other neuroinflammatory states have demonstrated a strong association between new vessel formation and microglial recruitment and activation, raising the possibility that micro...

    Authors: Jennifer V Welser, Longxuan Li and Richard Milner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:89

    Content type: Research

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  18. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the multifunctional factors during diverse physiological and pathological processes including development, wound healing, prolifera...

    Authors: Hsi-Lung Hsieh, Hui-Hsin Wang, Wen-Bin Wu, Po-Ju Chu and Chuen-Mao Yang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:88

    Content type: Research

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  19. The causes of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are not well understood. Due to demographic shifts in the industrialized world a growing number of people will develop AMD in the coming decades. To develop...

    Authors: William Raoul, Constance Auvynet, Serge Camelo, Xavier Guillonneau, Charles Feumi, Christophe Combadière and Florian Sennlaub

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:87

    Content type: Review

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  20. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an arachidonic acid metabolite converted by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), plays important roles in the regulation of endothelial functions in response to bacterial infection. The enzymatic ac...

    Authors: Ruey-Horng Shih and Chuen-Mao Yang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:86

    Content type: Research

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  21. Chungsim-Yeunja-Tang (CYT) has been used as a medicine for cerebral infarction (CI) patients in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine precisely the effect of CYT on CI patients using peripheral b...

    Authors: Hyun-Ja Jeong, In-Young Choi, Min-Ho Kim, Hyung-Min Kim, Phil-Dong Moon, Jin-Woo Hong and Soo-Hyun Kim

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:85

    Content type: Research

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  22. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a component of Gram-positive bacterial cell walls, which has been found to be elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of patients suffering from meningitis. Moreover, matrix metalloproteinas...

    Authors: Hui-Hsin Wang, Hsi-Lung Hsieh and Chuen-Mao Yang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:84

    Content type: Research

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  23. Current evidence suggests a role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of basal ganglia injury. Reportedly, n...

    Authors: Francesca L'Episcopo, Cataldo Tirolo, Salvatore Caniglia, Nunzio Testa, Pier A Serra, Francesco Impagnatiello, Maria C Morale and Bianca Marchetti

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:83

    Content type: Research

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  24. Methamphetamine (MA) use is associated with activation of microglia and, at high doses, can induce neurotoxicity. Given the changes in the neuroinflammatory environment associated with MA, we investigated whet...

    Authors: Jessica B Buchanan, Nathan L Sparkman and Rodney W Johnson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:82

    Content type: Research

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  25. Under certain experimental conditions, neurotrophic factors may reduce epileptogenesis. We have previously reported that local, intrahippocampal supplementation of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and brain-...

    Authors: Roberta Bovolenta, Silvia Zucchini, Beatrice Paradiso, Donata Rodi, Flavia Merigo, Graciela Navarro Mora, Francesco Osculati, Elena Berto, Peggy Marconi, Andrea Marzola, Paolo F Fabene and Michele Simonato

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:81

    Content type: Short report

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  26. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by difficulties in communication, cognitive and learning deficits, as well as stereotypic behaviors. For the majority of cases the...

    Authors: Bodi Zhang, Asimenia Angelidou, Konstantinos-Dionysios Alysandratos, Magdalini Vasiadi, Konstantinos Francis, Shahrzad Asadi, Athanasios Theoharides, Kyriaki Sideri, Lefteris Lykouras, Dimitrios Kalogeromitros and Theoharis C Theoharides

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:80

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  27. Neuroinflammation and demyelination have been suggested as mechanisms causing HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). This cross-sectional cohort study explores the potential role of antibodies to mye...

    Authors: Peter Lackner, Bettina Kuenz, Markus Reindl, Maria Morandell, Thomas Berger, Erich Schmutzhard and Christian Eggers

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:79

    Content type: Research

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  28. Numerous studies have reported that increased expression of S100B, an intracellular Ca2+ receptor protein and secreted neuropeptide, exacerbates Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. However, the ability of S100B i...

    Authors: Emily Roltsch, Leigh Holcomb, Keith A Young, Alexander Marks and Danna B Zimmer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:78

    Content type: Research

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  29. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which may be up-regulated after trauma to the peripheral or central nervous system. Such changes include reactive gliosis and synaptic plasticity that ar...

    Authors: Sheila CS Victório, Leif A Havton and Alexandre LR Oliveira

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:77

    Content type: Research

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  30. The contribution of inflammation to neurodegenerative diseases is increasingly recognized, but the role of inflammation in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) is not well understood and no animal mod...

    Authors: Milan Fiala, Madhuri Chattopadhay, Antonio La Cava, Eric Tse, Guanghao Liu, Elaine Lourenco, Ascia Eskin, Philip T Liu, Larry Magpantay, Stephen Tse, Michelle Mahanian, Rachel Weitzman, Jason Tong, Caroline Nguyen, Tiffany Cho, Patrick Koo…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:76

    Content type: Case study

    Published on:

  31. Recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTLs) are bio-engineered molecules that may serve as novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of neuroinflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS). RTLs contai...

    Authors: Asako Itakura, Joseph E Aslan, Sushmita Sinha, Tara C White-Adams, Ishan A Patel, Roberto Meza-Romero, Arthur A Vandenbark, Gregory G Burrows, Halina Offner and Owen JT McCarty

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:75

    Content type: Research

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  32. Neuroinflammation is a key element in the ischemic cascade after cerebral ischemia that results in cell damage and death in the subacute phase. However, anti-inflammatory drugs do not improve outcome in clinic...

    Authors: An-Gaëlle Ceulemans, Tine Zgavc, Ron Kooijman, Said Hachimi-Idrissi, Sophie Sarre and Yvette Michotte

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:74

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  33. WNV-associated encephalitis (WNVE) is characterized by increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators, glial cells activation and eventual loss of neurons. WNV infection of neurons is rapidly progressive a...

    Authors: Mukesh Kumar, Saguna Verma and Vivek R Nerurkar

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:73

    Content type: Research

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  34. This study compared the level of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), N-(Carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and N-(Carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HCs), correl...

    Authors: Zohara Sternberg, Cassandra Hennies, Daniel Sternberg, Ping Wang, Peter Kinkel, David Hojnacki, Bianca Weinstock-Guttmann and Frederick Munschauer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:72

    Content type: Research

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  35. Vascular dysfunction and brain inflammation are thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of cerebral injury in acute stroke. However acute inflammation and vascular dysfunction may simply be markers of an ...

    Authors: Christopher Beer, David Blacker, Michael Bynevelt, Graeme J Hankey and Ian B Puddey

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:71

    Content type: Research

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  36. Circumventricular organs (CVO) are cerebral areas with incomplete endothelial blood-brain barrier (BBB) and therefore regarded as "gates to the brain". During inflammation, they may exert an active role in det...

    Authors: Eva Wuerfel, Carmen Infante-Duarte, Robert Glumm and Jens T Wuerfel

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:70

    Content type: Research

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  37. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease affecting the central nervous system that is either sporadic or familial origin and causing the death of motor neurons. One of the genetic factors contributing ...

    Authors: Eun Jin Yang, Jing Hua Jiang, Sang Min Lee, Sun Choel Yang, Hye Suk Hwang, Myeong Soo Lee and Sun-Mi Choi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:69

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. Activation of microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), is the hallmark of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases and other pathological conditions associated with CNS i...

    Authors: Deepak K Kaushik, Malvika Gupta, Sulagna Das and Anirban Basu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:68

    Content type: Research

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  39. The chemokine CCL2 (also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, or MCP-1) is upregulated in patients and rodent models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), contributing to post-traumatic neuroinflammation an...

    Authors: Bridgette D Semple, Tony Frugier and M Cristina Morganti-Kossmann

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:67

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Brain edema leading to high intracranial pressure is a lethal complication of acute liver failure (ALF), which is believed to be cytotoxic due to swelling of astrocytes. In addition to the traditional view tha...

    Authors: Kakulavarapu V Rama Rao, Arumugam R Jayakumar, Xiaoying Tong, Veronica M Alvarez and Michael D Norenberg

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:66

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. Numerous epidemiological studies demonstrate that genetic background modifies the onset and the progression of Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegenerative disorders. The efficacious influence of genetic ...

    Authors: Zuzana Stozicka, Norbert Zilka, Petr Novak, Branislav Kovacech, Ondrej Bugos and Michal Novak

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:64

    Content type: Research

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  42. Most neurodegenerative diseases are age-related disorders; however, how aging predisposes the brain to disease has not been adequately addressed. The objective of this study is to determine whether expression ...

    Authors: Debjani Tripathy, Xiangling Yin, Alma Sanchez, Jinhua Luo, Joseph Martinez and Paula Grammas

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:63

    Content type: Research

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  43. TGFβ is both neuroprotective and a key immune system modulator and is likely to be an important target for future stroke therapy. The precise function of increased TGF-β1 after stroke is unknown and its pleiot...

    Authors: Kristian P Doyle, Egle Cekanaviciute, Lauren E Mamer and Marion S Buckwalter

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:62

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Microglial activation plays an integral role in the development and course of neurodegeneration. Although neuropeptides such as bradykinin (BK), somatostatin (SST), and endothelin (ET) are known to be importan...

    Authors: Sigal Fleisher-Berkovich, Talia Filipovich-Rimon, Sarit Ben-Shmuel, Claudia Hülsmann, Markus P Kummer and Michael T Heneka

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:61

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the endpoint of a complex and still poorly understood process which results in inflammation, demyelination and axonal and neuronal degeneration. Since the first description of MS, ps...

    Authors: Beatriz G Pérez-Nievas, Borja García-Bueno, José LM Madrigal and Juan C Leza

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:60

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. The classic neuritic β-amyloid plaque of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is typically associated with activated microglia and neuroinflammation. Similarly, cerebrovascular β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits are surrounded by pe...

    Authors: Philipp Spitzer, Martin Herrmann, Hans-Wolfgang Klafki, Alexander Smirnov, Piotr Lewczuk, Johannes Kornhuber, Jens Wiltfang and Juan Manuel Maler

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:59

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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