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  1. Interleukin (IL)-6 plays a pivotal role in a variety of CNS functions such as the induction and modulation of reactive astrogliosis, pathological inflammatory responses and neuroprotection. Tumor necrosis fact...

    Authors: Kumiko Tanabe, Rie Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Shinobu Yamaguchi, Hiroki Iida, Shuji Dohi and Osamu Kozawa

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:16

    Content type: Research

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  2. The complement system is a crucial mediator of inflammation and cell lysis after cerebral ischemia. However, there is little information about the exact contribution of the membrane attack complex (MAC) and it...

    Authors: Denise Harhausen, Uldus Khojasteh, Philip F Stahel, B Paul Morgan, Wilfried Nietfeld, Ulrich Dirnagl and George Trendelenburg

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:15

    Content type: Research

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  3. Cerebral ischemia from middle cerebral artery wall (MCA) occlusion results in increased expression of cerebrovascular endothelin and angiotensin receptors and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase...

    Authors: Aida Maddahi and Lars Edvinsson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:14

    Content type: Research

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:18

  4. The long-term neurological consequences of HIV infection and treatment are not yet completely understood. In this study we examined the prevalence of cerebral metabolic abnormalities among a cohort of neurolog...

    Authors: Åse B Andersen, Ian Law, Karen S Krabbe, Helle Bruunsgaard, Sisse R Ostrowski, Henrik Ullum, Liselotte Højgaard, Annemette Lebech, Jan Gerstoft and Andreas Kjær

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:13

    Content type: Research

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  5. Despite intensive studies focused on the pathophysiology of asthmatic inflammation, little is known about how cross-talk between neuroendocrine and immune systems regulates the inflammatory response during an ...

    Authors: Yi-Liang Zhu, Shui-Jun Zhang, Yang-Mei Deng, Xin-Wei Dong, Jun-Xia Jiang and Qiang-Min Xie

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:12

    Content type: Research

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  6. There is a growing body of evidence that unilateral nerve injury induces bilateral response, the mechanism of which is not exactly known. Because cytokines act as crucial signaling molecules for response of pe...

    Authors: Radim Jančálek, Petr Dubový, Ivana Svíženská and Ilona Klusáková

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:11

    Content type: Research

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  7. This review summarizes recent developments in platelet biology relevant to neuroinflammatory disorders. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is taken as the "Poster Child" of these disorders but the implications are wide. ...

    Authors: Lawrence L Horstman, Wenche Jy, Yeon S Ahn, Robert Zivadinov, Amir H Maghzi, Masoud Etemadifar, J Steven Alexander and Alireza Minagar

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:10

    Content type: Review

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  8. Interleukin (IL)-18 is a cytokine isolated as an important modulator of immune responses and subsequently shown to be pleiotropic. IL-18 and its receptors are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) wher...

    Authors: Silvia Alboni, Davide Cervia, Shuei Sugama and Bruno Conti

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:9

    Content type: Review

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  9. The role of neuroinflammation in motor neuron death of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is unclear. The human mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (hmSOD1)-expressing murine transgenic model of ALS has provided so...

    Authors: David J Graber, William F Hickey and Brent T Harris

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:8

    Content type: Research

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  10. Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as...

    Authors: Sophie R Bader, Sonja Kothlow, Sascha Trapp, Susanne CN Schwarz, Hans-Christian Philipp, Steffen Weigend, Ahmad R Sharifi, Rudolf Preisinger, Wolfgang Schmahl, Bernd Kaspers and Kaspar Matiasek

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:7

    Content type: Research

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  11. Alzheimer's disease is the most common dementia in the elderly, and the potential of peripheral biochemical markers as complementary tools in the neuropsychiatric evaluation of these patients has claimed furth...

    Authors: Márcia L Chaves, Ana L Camozzato, Eduardo D Ferreira, Isabel Piazenski, Renata Kochhann, Oscar Dall'Igna, Guilherme S Mazzini, Diogo O Souza and Luis V Portela

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:6

    Content type: Research

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  12. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates interrelated inflammatory and coagulation cascades characterized by wide-spread cellular activation, induction of leukocyte and endothelial cell adhesion molecules and re...

    Authors: Shawn G Rhind, Naomi T Crnko, Andrew J Baker, Laurie J Morrison, Pang N Shek, Sandro Scarpelini and Sandro B Rizoli

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:5

    Content type: Research

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  13. Small-conductance Ca2+ activated K+ channels are expressed in the CNS, where KCNN2/SK2/KCa2.2 and KCNN3/SK3/KCa2.3 help shape the electrical activity of some neurons. The SK3 channel is considered a potential the...

    Authors: Lyanne C Schlichter, Vikas Kaushal, Iska Moxon-Emre, Vishanthan Sivagnanam and Catherine Vincent

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:4

    Content type: Research

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  14. Luteolin, a plant derived flavonoid, exerts a variety of pharmacological activities and anti-oxidant properties associated with its capacity to scavenge oxygen and nitrogen species. Luteolin also shows potent ...

    Authors: Konstantin Dirscherl, Marcus Karlstetter, Stefanie Ebert, Dominik Kraus, Julia Hlawatsch, Yana Walczak, Christoph Moehle, Rudolf Fuchshofer and Thomas Langmann

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:3

    Content type: Research

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:118

  15. Recent studies suggest an important role for neurotransmitters as modulators of inflammation. Neuroinflammatory mediators such as cytokines and molecules of the arachidonic acid pathway are generated and relea...

    Authors: Johannes CM Schlachetzki, Bernd L Fiebich, Elisabeth Haake, Antonio CP de Oliveira, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil, Michael T Heneka and Michael Hüll

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:2

    Content type: Research

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  16. The chemokine CXCL13 is known to dictate homing and motility of B cells in lymphoid tissue and has been implicated in the formation of ectopic lymphoid tissue in chronic inflammation. Whether it influences B c...

    Authors: Tobias A Rupprecht, Andreas Plate, Michaela Adam, Manfed Wick, Stefan Kastenbauer, Caroline Schmidt, Matthias Klein, Hans-Walter Pfister and Uwe Koedel

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:42

    Content type: Research

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  17. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in several crucial cellular functions, e.g. protein folding and quality control, maintenance of Ca2+ balance, and cholesterol synthesis. Many genetic and environmental i...

    Authors: Antero Salminen, Anu Kauppinen, Tiina Suuronen, Kai Kaarniranta and Johanna Ojala

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:41

    Content type: Review

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  18. Neuroinflammation occurs after seizures and is implicated in epileptogenesis. CCR2 is a chemokine receptor for CCL2 and their interaction mediates monocyte infiltration in the neuroinflammatory cascade trigger...

    Authors: Maira L Foresti, Gabriel M Arisi, Khurshed Katki, Andres Montañez, Russell M Sanchez and Lee A Shapiro

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:40

    Content type: Research

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  19. Transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPC) constitutes a putative therapeutic maneuver for use in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. At present, effects of NPC transplantation in Alzheimer's diseas...

    Authors: Jae K Ryu, Taesup Cho, Yu Tian Wang and James G McLarnon

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:39

    Content type: Short report

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  20. To elucidate the presence and potential involvement of brain inflammation and cell death in neurological morbidity and intractable seizures in childhood epilepsy, we quantified cell death, astrocyte proliferat...

    Authors: Jieun Choi, Douglas R Nordli Jr, Tord D Alden, Arthur DiPatri Jr, Linda Laux, Kent Kelley, Joshua Rosenow, Stephan U Schuele, Veena Rajaram and Sookyong Koh

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:38

    Content type: Research

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  21. Glucocorticoids have been shown to be effective in the treatment of autoimmune diseases of the CNS such as multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the...

    Authors: Željka Miljković, Miljana Momčilović, Djordje Miljković and Marija Mostarica-Stojković

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:37

    Content type: Research

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  22. The excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN) is synthesized through the kynurenine pathway (KP) by activated monocyte lineage cells. QUIN is likely to play a role in the pathogenesis of several major neuroinflammato...

    Authors: Ka Ka Ting, Bruce J Brew and Gilles J Guillemin

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:36

    Content type: Research

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  23. A causal role of the complement system in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis has been postulated based on the identification of different activated components up to the membrane attack complex at amyloid plaques...

    Authors: Julia Reichwald, Simone Danner, Karl-Heinz Wiederhold and Matthias Staufenbiel

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:35

    Content type: Research

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  24. In the periphery, C5a acts through the G-protein coupled receptor CD88 to enhance/maintain inflammatory responses. In the brain, CD88 can be expressed on astrocytes, microglia and neurons. Previous studies hav...

    Authors: James W Crane, Gilang P Baiquni, Robert KP Sullivan, John D Lee, Pankaj Sah, Stephen M Taylor, Peter G Noakes and Trent M Woodruff

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:34

    Content type: Research

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  25. Autoimmune diseases, like multiple sclerosis, are triggered by uncontrolled activation of cells of the immune system against self-antigen present, for instance, in the central nervous system. We have reported ...

    Authors: Nikolaos Paschalidis, Asif J Iqbal, Francesco Maione, Elisabeth G Wood, Mauro Perretti, Rod J Flower and Fulvio D'Acquisto

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:33

    Content type: Research

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  26. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of preventable death and serious morbidity in young adults. This complex pathological condition is characterized by significant blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage t...

    Authors: Mushfiquddin Khan, Yeong-Bin Im, Anandakumar Shunmugavel, Anne G Gilg, Ramanpreet K Dhindsa, Avtar K Singh and Inderjit Singh

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:32

    Content type: Research

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  27. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies reactive with intracellular neuronal proteins have been described in paraneoplastic and other autoimmune disorders. Because neurons have been thought impermeable to immunoglob...

    Authors: Kenneth E Hill, Susan A Clawson, John W Rose, Noel G Carlson and John E Greenlee

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:31

    Content type: Research

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  28. Patients with severe burn injury experience a rapid elevation in multiple circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, with the levels correlating with both injury severity and outcome. Accumulations of these cytok...

    Authors: Joshua W Gatson, David L Maass, James W Simpkins, Ahamed H Idris, Joseph P Minei and Jane G Wigginton

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:30

    Content type: Research

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  29. Multiple sclerosis (MS) remains without an effective treatment in spite of intense research efforts. Interferon-beta (IFN-β) reduces duration and severity of symptoms in many relapsing-remitting MS patients, b...

    Authors: Theoharis C Theoharides

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:29

    Content type: Commentary

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  30. The study is aimed to determine the role of luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), alone and in combination with human interferon-beta (IFN-β), in modulating the immune response(s) of peripheral blood monon...

    Authors: Zohara Sternberg, Kailash Chadha, Alicia Lieberman, Allison Drake, David Hojnacki, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman and Frederick Munschauer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:28

    Content type: Research

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  31. Recently, a novel factor with anorexigenic properties was identified and called nesfatin-1. This protein (82 aac) is not only expressed in peripheral organs but it is also found in neurons located in specific ...

    Authors: Marion S Bonnet, Emilie Pecchi, Jérôme Trouslard, André Jean, Michel Dallaporta and Jean-Denis Troadec

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:27

    Content type: Short report

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  32. Resveratrol, a polyphenol present in grapes and red wine, has been studied due to its vast pharmacological activity. It has been demonstrated that resveratrol inhibits production of inflammatory mediators in d...

    Authors: Lena Wendeburg, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Harsharan S Bhatia, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil and Bernd L Fiebich

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:26

    Content type: Short report

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  33. Although magnesium ions (Mg2+) are known to display many similar features to other 2+ charged cations, they seem to have quite an important and unique role in biological settings, such as NMDA blocking effect. Ho...

    Authors: Takahiro Ushida, Osamu Iwatsu, Kazuhiro Shimo, Tomoko Tetsunaga, Masahiko Ikeuchi, Tatsunori Ikemoto, Young-Chang P Arai, Katsutoshi Suetomi and Makoto Nishihara

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:25

    Content type: Research

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  34. Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) may present as meningitis, cranial neuropathy, acute radiculoneuropathy or, rarely, as encephalomyelitis. We hypothesized that glia, upon exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme dis...

    Authors: Geeta Ramesh, Juan T Borda, Amy Gill, Erin P Ribka, Lisa A Morici, Peter Mottram, Dale S Martin, Mary B Jacobs, Peter J Didier and Mario T Philipp

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:23

    Content type: Research

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  35. Chronic inflammation is a characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). An interaction associated with the risk of AD has been reported between polymorphisms in the regulatory regions of the genes for the pro-in...

    Authors: Onofre Combarros, Cornelia M van Duijn, Naomi Hammond, Olivia Belbin, Alejandro Arias-Vásquez, Mario Cortina-Borja, Michael G Lehmann, Yurii S Aulchenko, Maaike Schuur, Heike Kölsch, Reinhard Heun, Gordon K Wilcock, Kristelle Brown, Patrick G Kehoe, Rachel Harrison, Eliecer Coto…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:22

    Content type: Research

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  36. In animal models, ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury triggers membrane lipid degradation and accumulation of lipoxidative exacerbations in neurovascular unit, leading to blood brain barrier (BBB) damage and neur...

    Authors: Md Nasrul Hoda, Inderjit Singh, Avtar K Singh and Mushfiquddin Khan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:21

    Content type: Research

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  37. Gadopentate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely applied for the visualization of blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experiment...

    Authors: Eva Tysiak, Patrick Asbach, Orhan Aktas, Helmar Waiczies, Maureen Smyth, Joerg Schnorr, Matthias Taupitz and Jens Wuerfel

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:20

    Content type: Research

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  38. Inflammatory cytokines play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI), exerting either deleterious effects on the progression of tissue damage or beneficial roles during recovery an...

    Authors: Hans H Wei, Xi-Chun M Lu, Deborah A Shear, Anu Waghray, Changping Yao, Frank C Tortella and Jitendra R Dave

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:19

    Content type: Research

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  39. Chronic neuroinflammation is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). Inflammation involves the activation of microglia and astrocytes that release high levels of prostaglandins. There is a profound gap in our ...

    Authors: Sha-Ron Pierre, Marijke AM Lemmens and Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:18

    Content type: Research

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  40. Marrow stromal cells (MSC), the non-hematopoietic precursor cells in bone marrow, are being investigated for therapeutic potential in CNS disorders. Although in vitro studies have suggested that MSC may be immuno...

    Authors: Dianne M Camp, David A Loeffler, Diane M Farrah, Jade N Borneman and Peter A LeWitt

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:17

    Content type: Research

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  41. The unique physiology and function of neurons create differences in their cellular physiology, including their regulation of gene expression. We began several years ago exploring the relationships between the ...

    Authors: Xianrong R Mao, Andréa M Moerman-Herzog, Yuzhi Chen and Steven W Barger

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:16

    Content type: Review

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  42. Brain inflammation plays a central role in numerous brain pathologies, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Microglial cells and astrocytes are the effector cells of neuroinflammation. They can be activated also...

    Authors: Antoinette Defaux, Marie-Gabrielle Zurich, Olivier Braissant, Paul Honegger and Florianne Monnet-Tschudi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:15

    Content type: Research

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  43. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is the founding member of a novel family of inflammatory cytokines that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and its...

    Authors: Jayasri Das Sarma, Bogoljub Ciric, Ryan Marek, Sanjoy Sadhukhan, Michael L Caruso, Jasmine Shafagh, Denise C Fitzgerald, Kenneth S Shindler and AM Rostami

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:14

    Content type: Research

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  44. The kinin B1 receptor (B1R) is upregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, bacterial endotoxins and hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. In animal models of diabetes, it contributes to pain polyneuropathy. Thi...

    Authors: Sébastien Talbot, Patrick Théberge-Turmel, Dalinda Liazoghli, Jacques Sénécal, Pierrette Gaudreau and Réjean Couture

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:11

    Content type: Research

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  45. Septic shock is a prevalent condition that, when not lethal, often causes disturbances in cognition, mood, and behavior, particularly due to central actions of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). T...

    Authors: Eléonore Beurel and Richard S Jope

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:9

    Content type: Research

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